Presentation on theme: "1. Define important words in this chapter"— Presentation transcript:
1 1. Define important words in this chapter diabetes a condition in which the pancreas does not produce insulin or does not produce enough insulin; causes problems with circulation and can damage vital organs. hyperthyroidism a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, which causes body processes to speed up and metabolism to increase. hypothyroidism a condition in which the body lacks thyroid hormone, which causes body processes to slow down.
2 1. Define important words in this chapter pre-diabetes a condition in which a person’s blood glucose levels are above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
3 2. Explain the structure and function of the endocrine system The endocrine system regulates many important body functions. The endocrine system is made up of glands in different areas of the body.
5 2. Explain the structure and function of the endocrine system Remember the following points about the endocrine system:Glands secrete hormones, which are chemical substances that control numerous body functions.Hormones are carried in the blood for delivery to target tissues or organs.The pituitary gland controls the hormone production of other glands.The pancreas produces the hormone insulin, which regulates the amount of glucose available to the cells for metabolism.
6 2. Explain the structure and function of the endocrine system Know the functions of the endocrine system:Maintains homeostasis through hormone secretionInfluences growth and developmentRegulates levels of calcium in the bloodMaintains blood sugar levelsRegulates the body’s ability to reproduceDetermines how quickly cells burn food for energy
7 3. Discuss changes in the endocrine system due to aging Normal changes of aging in the endocrine system:Levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease, which signal the onset of menopause in women.Testosterone levels in males usually decrease, but production does not stop.Insulin production decreases.Body is less able to handle stress.
8 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Define the following terms: diabetes a condition in which the pancreas does not produce insulin or does not produce enough insulin; causes problems with circulation and can damage vital organs. pre-diabetes a condition in which a person’s blood glucose levels are above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
9 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Remember these points about diabetes:Condition in which the pancreas does not produce insulin or does not produce enough insulinRisk factors: family history of the disease, advanced age, obesityComplications caused by diabetes: hypoglycemia; DKA; problems with circulation; increased risk of heart attack; stroke, or impaired circulation of the legs; increased risk of infection and gangrene; diabetic retinopathy, damage to vital organs including the kidneys; diabetic peripheral neuropathy
10 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Know these points about pre-diabetes:Condition in which glucose levels are elevated, but not high enough to establish a diagnosis of diabetesPeople with pre-diabetes may already have damage to the vital organs.Change in diet can reduce weight and lower the risk of pre-diabetes or diabetes.
11 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Remember these points about type 1 diabetes:Usually diagnosed in children and young adultsCause: pancreas does not produce any insulinCondition will continue throughout person’s lifeTreatment: daily injections, special diet, monitoring blood glucose level
12 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Remember these points about type 2 diabetes:Most common form of diabetesCause: body does not produce enough insulin or fails to properly use insulinTreatment: monitoring blood glucose levels, diet, weight loss, medication, stopping smoking, exercise
13 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Know the signs and symptoms of diabetes:Excessive thirstExcessive hungerExcessive urinationHigh blood sugar levelsGlucose in the urineVery dry skin
14 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Signs and symptoms of diabetes (cont’d.):FatigueBlurred vision or visual changesSlow-healing sores, cuts, or bruisesTingling or numbness in the hands or feetUnexplained weight lossIncreased number of infections
15 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Define the following term: hypothyroidism a condition in which the body lacks thyroid hormone, which causes body processes to slow down.
16 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Know these points about hypothyroidism:Condition in which the body lacks thyroid hormoneAutoimmune disorderCauses: Hashimoto’s disease, surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioactive iodine therapy, thyroiditisSymptoms: fatigue and weakness, weight gain, constipation, intolerance to cold, dry skin, thinning hair or hair loss, brittle hair or fingernails, slow heart rate, low blood pressure, abnormal low temperature, goiter, hoarseness, heavier menstrual periods, absent menses, depressionTreatment: thyroid replacement therapy
17 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Define the following term: hyperthyroidism a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, which causes body processes to speed up and metabolism to increase.
18 4. Discuss common disorders of the endocrine system Know these points about hyperthyroidism:Condition in which thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormonePrimary cause: Grave’s diseaseSymptoms: nervousness, restlessness, fatigue, visual problems or eye irritation, exophthalmos, trembling, intolerance to heat, excessive perspiration, rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, increase in appetite, weight loss, changes in bowel movements, irregular or absent menses, goiterTreatment: anti-thyroid drugs, beta-blockers, radioactive iodine, surgery
19 5. Describe care guidelines for diabetes REMEMBER: Care of the person with diabetes includes a plan of care associated with every system in the body. Diabetes must be carefully controlled to prevent complications and serious illness. Follow the care plan closely.
20 5. Describe care guidelines for diabetes Know these care guidelines for diabetes:Keep skin clean and dry.Observe carefully for breaks in skin.Encourage resident to follow exercise plan.Report complaints of pain, numbness, or tingling in the arms or legs.Perform foot care carefully.Encourage proper footwear.
21 5. Describe care guidelines for diabetes Care guidelines for diabetes (cont’d.):Carefully follow diet instructions.People with diabetes can work with a registered dietitian (RDT) or a certified diabetes educator (CDE).Keep track of residents’ tests.Report if resident does not follow care plan.Perform blood glucose tests only as directed and if trained.
22 5. Describe care guidelines for diabetes Care guidelines for diabetes (cont’d.):Report any of the following: signs of skin breakdown; visual changes; changes in mobility; nervousness or anxiety; dizziness or loss of coordination; numbness or tingling in arms and legs; irritability or confusion; changes in appetite; increased thirst; fruity or sweet-smelling breath; weight change; nausea or vomiting; change in urinary output or signs of UTI; or fruity- or sweet-smelling urine.
23 6. Discuss foot care guidelines for diabetes Quality foot care is vital for people with diabetes. Diabetes weakens the immune system, which reduces resistance to infections. Poor circulation due to the narrowing of the blood vessels also increases the risk of infection. When foot infections are not caught early, they can take months to heal. If wounds do not heal, amputation of a toe, an entire foot, or a leg may be necessary.
24 6. Discuss foot care guidelines for diabetes REMEMBER: Foot care to prevent infection should be a part of daily care of residents. Keeping the feet clean and dry is a way to help prevent complications. It is important to observe the feet carefully during care.
25 6. Discuss foot care guidelines for diabetes Remember these guidelines for safe diabetic foot care:Inspect and clean resident’s feet each day during bathing.Avoid harsh soaps and hot water.Always dry feet carefully.Never cut toenails, corns, or calluses.Do not use objects to remove dirt from toenails.
26 6. Discuss foot care guidelines for diabetes Guidelines for safe diabetic foot care (cont’d.):Use doctor-recommended cream or lotion on feet, but not between the toes.Check shoes for rocks or other objects.Remind resident not to go barefoot.Report the following: excessive dryness of the skin; breaks or tears in skin; ingrown nails; reddened areas on feet; drainage or bleeding; change in color of skin or nails; change in temperature of the skin; corns; blisters; calluses; warts; blood or drainage on the feet or toes; painful, tender, soft, or fragile areas on feet; or burning in the feet.
27 Providing foot careEquipment: basin, bath mat, soap, lotion, gloves, washcloth, 2 towels, bath thermometer, clean socks1. Identify yourself by name. Identify the resident. Greet the resident by name.2. Wash your hands.3. Explain procedure to resident. Speak clearly, slowly, and directly. Maintain face-to-face contact whenever possible.
28 Providing foot care4. Provide for the resident’s privacy with a curtain, screen, or door. 5. If the resident is in bed, adjust bed to lowest position. Lock bed wheels. 6. Fill the basin halfway with warm water. Test water temperature with thermometer or your wrist. Ensure it is safe. Water temperature should be 105°F. Have resident check water temperature. Adjust if necessary.
29 Providing foot care7. Place basin on the bath mat. Support the foot and ankle throughout the procedure. 8. Remove resident’s socks. Completely submerge resident’s feet in water. Soak the feet for five to ten minutes. 9. Put on gloves. 10. Remove one foot from water. Wash entire foot, including between the toes and around nail beds, with a soapy washcloth.
30 Providing foot care11. Rinse entire foot, including between the toes. 12. Using a towel, pat dry entire foot, including between the toes. 13. Repeat steps 10 through 12 for the other foot. 14. Put lotion in hand. Warm lotion by rubbing hands together.
31 Providing foot care15. Massage lotion into feet (top and bottom), except between the toes, removing excess (if any) with a towel. Make sure lotion has been absorbed and feet are completely dry. 16. Empty, rinse, and wipe basin. Return to proper storage. 17. Dispose of soiled linen in the proper container. 18. Remove and discard gloves. Wash your hands.
32 Providing foot care19. Assist resident to put on clean socks. Make resident comfortable. 20. Remove privacy measures. 21. Leave call light within resident’s reach. 22. Wash your hands. 23. Be courteous and respectful at all times. 24. Report any changes in the resident to the nurse. Document procedure using facility guidelines.
33 ExamMultiple Choice. Choose the correct answer. 1. The ______ gland is known as the master gland because it controls the hormone production of other glands. (A) Pituitary (B) Thyroid (C) Parathyroid (D) Adrenal 2. The function of insulin is to: (A) Regulate metabolism and growth (B) Stimulate the growth of nervous tissue (C) Trigger the “fight or flight” response in the body (D) Regulate the amount of glucose available to the cells for metabolism
34 Exam (cont’d.)3. Which of the following is a function of the endocrine system? (A) Regulates body temperature (B) Gives the body shape and structure (C) Senses and interprets messages from the environment (D) Maintains blood sugar levels 4. Normal age-related changes for the endocrine system include: (A) Decrease in levels of hormones signal the onset of menopause in women (B) Testosterone levels in males increase (C) Insulin production increases (D) Body is more able to handle stress
35 Exam (cont’d.)5. Which of the following conditions makes a person more likely to have diabetes? (A) The person is obese (B) The person is malnourished (C) The person is incontinent (D) The person has chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder 6. Diabetes can lead to the following complications: (A) Chronic cough (B) Problems with circulation (C) Lack of appetite (D) Improved ability to perform strenuous exercise
36 Exam (cont’d.)7. Pre-diabetes can be delayed or prevented by: (A) Change in diet and daily exercise (B) Medication (C) Surgery (D) Increasing intake of fluids 8. The most common form of diabetes is: (A) Pre-diabetes (B) Type 1 diabetes (C) Type 2 diabetes (D) Hypoglycemia
37 Exam (cont’d.) 9. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include: (A) Intolerance to cold(B) Bulging or protruding eyes(C) Rapid heartbeatNormal menstrual periods10. A diabetic resident should:(A) Skip meals(B) Go barefoot(C) Receive careful foot care(D) Avoid exercise
38 Exam (cont’d.)11. Which of the following is a guideline for safe diabetic foot care? (A) Inspect and clean resident’s feet every day. (B) Clip resident’s toenails frequently. (C) Use lotion between the toes to prevent dryness and cracking. (D) Use hot water for bathing the feet to help prevent infection.