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On the road to the creation of situation-adaptive dialogue managers Ajay Juneja 11-716 Dialog Seminar.

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Presentation on theme: "On the road to the creation of situation-adaptive dialogue managers Ajay Juneja 11-716 Dialog Seminar."— Presentation transcript:

1 On the road to the creation of situation-adaptive dialogue managers Ajay Juneja Dialog Seminar

2 Papers – a diverse selection Design of the VICO Spoken Dialogue System: Evaluation of user Expectations by Wizard of Oz Experiments (Petra Geutner, Frank Steffens, and Dietrich Manstetten, LREC 2002) Design of the VICO Spoken Dialogue System: Evaluation of user Expectations by Wizard of Oz Experiments (Petra Geutner, Frank Steffens, and Dietrich Manstetten, LREC 2002) An Automobile-Integrated System for Assessing and Reacting to Driver Cognitive Load (Pompei, Sharon, Buckley, and Kemp, 2002) An Automobile-Integrated System for Assessing and Reacting to Driver Cognitive Load (Pompei, Sharon, Buckley, and Kemp, 2002) We are not amused – but how do you know? User States in a multi-modal dialogue system (Batliner, ZeiBler, Frank, Adelhardt, Shi, Noth, Eurospeech 2003) We are not amused – but how do you know? User States in a multi-modal dialogue system (Batliner, ZeiBler, Frank, Adelhardt, Shi, Noth, Eurospeech 2003)

3 VICO overview Goal: to evaluate the use of a Natural-Language dialogue system in an automotive driving simulation Goal: to evaluate the use of a Natural-Language dialogue system in an automotive driving simulation –How do drivers interact with the NLP system? –What are the user’s reactions to such a system? –What are the distraction effects on the driving behavior? VICO operates in a similar manner to Ariadne. Petra Geutner used to be part of the Interactive Systems Lab. VICO operates in a similar manner to Ariadne. Petra Geutner used to be part of the Interactive Systems Lab.

4 VICO – Driver Interactions Some interactions were initiated by the dialogue manager, some were initiated by the user. Some interactions were initiated by the dialogue manager, some were initiated by the user. Dialogues ranged from seconds in duration. Dialogues ranged from seconds in duration. Were the pre-defined system prompts enough? According the results, they experienced much less variation in what people would say than they expected. As a result, they seemed to have very promising results. Were the pre-defined system prompts enough? According the results, they experienced much less variation in what people would say than they expected. As a result, they seemed to have very promising results. –This is contrary to what General Motors feels will be the case in NLP dialogue system design.

5 VICO – User Reactions 9/10 people experienced an overall pleasant reaction to VICO. 9/10 people experienced an overall pleasant reaction to VICO. Problems experienced in understanding the speech output from VICO (Speech synthesis) Problems experienced in understanding the speech output from VICO (Speech synthesis) VICO overloaded some drivers with too much information at once, one person felt VICO talked to fast. VICO overloaded some drivers with too much information at once, one person felt VICO talked to fast.

6 VICO – distraction effects People tended to slow down when using VICO as the most common side effect. People tended to slow down when using VICO as the most common side effect. Drifting lanes was not common. Drifting lanes was not common. No accidents happened. No accidents happened.

7 Pompei & Sharon: Reaction to Driver Cognitive Load Utilized the following sensors: Utilized the following sensors: –Cameras –GPS –accelerometers –grip sensors –foot-position sensors –ultrasonic sensors on the bumpers –microphones –seat sensors –cup holder sensors

8 Pompei & Sharon: Reaction to Driver Cognitive Load Also used Blue Eyes gaze tracking system (from IBM Almaden Research Center) Also used Blue Eyes gaze tracking system (from IBM Almaden Research Center) They DID NOT use a telematics or navigation system in the car, as they wanted to test the complexity of the typically owned vehicles as a baseline They DID NOT use a telematics or navigation system in the car, as they wanted to test the complexity of the typically owned vehicles as a baseline

9 Pompei & Sharon: Reaction to Driver Cognitive Load Goals: Goals: –Monitor driver stress levels – Anger is associated with crashes. –Where the driver’s gaze and attention are. Will be utilized to determine if the driver is looking at the road or not. –Force the driver’s attention to a particular device with the use of LED’s. –Improve someone’s driving habits. –Limit the audibility of a cell phone or telematics system messages to just the driver. –Warn the driver when appropriate –“Busy” button to let the user tell the system that they do not want to be disturbed by the cell phone, telematics system, etc.

10 Pompei & Sharon: Reaction to Driver Cognitive Load They haven’t yet done user studies or examined all of the data yet. They haven’t yet done user studies or examined all of the data yet.

11 We are not amused – but how do you know? Goal: to examine emotional states in the context of dialogue systems. Goal: to examine emotional states in the context of dialogue systems. Used SmartKom dialogue system with gesture and facial expression recognition. Used SmartKom dialogue system with gesture and facial expression recognition. What prosodic features are relevant to classifying user emotional state? What prosodic features are relevant to classifying user emotional state?

12 We are not amused – but how do you know? Checked for word boundaries by using fixed alignment. Checked for word boundaries by using fixed alignment. Studied both holistic user states (Speech, Gestures, Facial Expression) and just facial expressions. Studied both holistic user states (Speech, Gestures, Facial Expression) and just facial expressions. Marked significant deviations from neutral. Marked significant deviations from neutral.

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14 We are not amused – but how do you know? Results: Results: –Prosodic classification doesn’t work so well, and parts of speech don’t help so much. –Much confusion between user states of angry and helplessness. –They haven’t classified the facial data yet.

15 We are not amused – but how do you know? Characterizations of User States (audio only): Characterizations of User States (audio only): –Joyful is characterized by lower energy level and less (duration/F0) variation –Helpless has more pauses and longer durations –Angry has a higher energy level and less energy variation

16 Diverse topics, Where do we go from here? VICO shows that NLP does have a place within the car over a command and control dialog. Distraction caused by an NLP dialogue system appears to be minor in their opinion VICO shows that NLP does have a place within the car over a command and control dialog. Distraction caused by an NLP dialogue system appears to be minor in their opinion Pompei and Sharon show us a very interesting control system set up within a car to monitor a driver’s behavior and have a great framework for distraction studies. Pompei and Sharon show us a very interesting control system set up within a car to monitor a driver’s behavior and have a great framework for distraction studies. Batliner, et. al show us that it is extremely hard to gather information on a users’ state from a dialogue manager alone. Batliner, et. al show us that it is extremely hard to gather information on a users’ state from a dialogue manager alone.

17 Where do we go from here? Within an automotive setting, utilize control systems akin to what Pompei and Sharon have done, and integrate them into a dialogue manager. Within an automotive setting, utilize control systems akin to what Pompei and Sharon have done, and integrate them into a dialogue manager. Have the dialogue manager adapt to different user states as monitored by outside data, not just emotional state as determine by tonal characteristics in one’s speaking behavior. Have the dialogue manager adapt to different user states as monitored by outside data, not just emotional state as determine by tonal characteristics in one’s speaking behavior. Toyota in another paper suggested that throttle control was the best measure of someone’s distraction level. Toyota in another paper suggested that throttle control was the best measure of someone’s distraction level.


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