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Copyright © 2006-2007 The Beyond Intractability Project Beyond Intractability is a Registered Trademark of the University of Colorado PowerPoint Summary.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006-2007 The Beyond Intractability Project Beyond Intractability is a Registered Trademark of the University of Colorado PowerPoint Summary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © The Beyond Intractability Project Beyond Intractability is a Registered Trademark of the University of Colorado PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

2 Slide 2: Force (Coercive Power) Force consists of making someone do something through coercion “You’d better do what I say, or else!” PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

3 Slide 3: Force and Threats Force can take many forms Physical violence Negative sanctions Threats Threats can work alone IF They are seen as credible The threatened action is seen as more harmful than capitulation PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

4 Slide 4: Risks and Reasons for Force Force is risky, because It often generates a backlash It is often the most expensive conflict response However, force is often used because Parties want to make a statement Parties don’t see any alternative PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

5 Slide 5: Military Coercion Military power is based on Numbers -- of soldiers, weapons, equipment and resources Technology -- effectiveness and sophistication of equipment Organization -- the coherence, discipline, training and morale of troops and effectiveness of leadership Society -- willingness of society to purse military force PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

6 Slide 6: Not Capitulating Decisions not to capitulate are based on An underestimation of the threat or the threatener An overestimation of one’s own capabilities Psychological factors, such as pride or anger A policy that prevents capitulation to threats PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

7 Slide 7: Considerations for Threateners Potential threateners should consider: Is the opponent likely to respond as you wish? What is the likelihood they will lash back — now or later? Is your threat credible? How costly is the coercive threat — and action? How much destruction is the Other willing to endure? PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

8 Slide 8: Limits of Coercive Force Coercive force has its limits Some responses are beyond our control (a party cannot be coerced into not sneezing) Coercive force may be inadequate to overcome resistance Coercive power does not guarantee that the integrative and exchange power necessary for sustainable peace exists PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

9 Slide 9: Advantages of Coercive Force Coercive force has some advantages May be the only option in the face of truly imminent danger May be the most effective way to ensure access to important or limited resources Can improve internal cohesion in response to a common enemy Sometimes is faster than other forms of force — if it works, it gets you what you want more quickly PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)

10 Slide 10: Disadvantages of Coercive Force Coercive force has many disadvantages May increase internal cohesiveness or resolve of the target Has direct costs (loss of life, land, or resources) Has indirect costs (use of resources on coercion instead of internal needs) Coercive force often provokes resistance and/or a backlash, though possibly a delayed one. This causes escalation and increased costs. PowerPoint Summary of: Force (Coercive Power)


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