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29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta 1 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM (SSR) SEMINAR Military conscription vs. Professional forces Advantages & Disadvantages.

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Presentation on theme: "29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta 1 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM (SSR) SEMINAR Military conscription vs. Professional forces Advantages & Disadvantages."— Presentation transcript:

1 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta 1 SECURITY SECTOR REFORM (SSR) SEMINAR Military conscription vs. Professional forces Advantages & Disadvantages

2 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta2 AGENDA  I. ASSUMPTIONS/PREREQUISITES, CHARACTERISTICS. 11. Assumptions 11. Assumptions 12. Characteristics 12. Characteristics  II. CONSCRIPTION 21. Advantages 21. Advantages 22. Disadvantages 22. Disadvantages 23. Risks 23. Risks  III. PROFESSIONAL (ALL-VOLUNTEER) FORCES 31. Advantages 31. Advantages 32. Disadvantages 32. Disadvantages 33. Risks 33. Risks

3 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta3 « Draftees » vs. « Professionals » : * a different concept * a different context I. ASSUMPTIONS/PREREQUISITES, CHARACTERISTICS 11. Assumptions/Prerequisites11. Assumptions/Prerequisites 111. Conscription 111. Conscription Well defined national territorial threat Well defined national territorial threat Existing infrastructure Existing infrastructure National will and support (citizenship vs. communal sense) National will and support (citizenship vs. communal sense) « Equal opportunity » system « Equal opportunity » system Relative economical wealth Relative economical wealth 112. Professional force 112. Professional force Military missions within national security policy Military missions within national security policy Nation-wide legitimacy (link armed forces/public opinion) Nation-wide legitimacy (link armed forces/public opinion) Financial back-up (equipments, status, career etc.) Financial back-up (equipments, status, career etc.) Follow-on reserve system Follow-on reserve system Attractiveness (of career, mission & tasks) Attractiveness (of career, mission & tasks)

4 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta4 I. ASSUMPTIONS/PREREQUISITES, CHARACTERISTICS (cont.) 12. Characteristics (The latter assumptions granted - see slide # 3 - !...) 121. Conscription Conscription. A force of « mass formations » A force of « mass formations » A « national » force ( notion of obligation ) A « national » force ( notion of obligation ) 122. Professional force 122. Professional force A smaller force … (Technology vs. Mass) A smaller force … (Technology vs. Mass) Of professionals ( skills, craftsmanship, career and service ) Of professionals ( skills, craftsmanship, career and service )

5 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta5 II. CONSCRIPTION (1) 21. Advantages 211. Military aspects 211. Military aspects Nation-wide military training Nation-wide military training Bigger pool of troops’ immediate availability (in case of major threat) Bigger pool of troops’ immediate availability (in case of major threat) 212. Financial/budgetary aspects 212. Financial/budgetary aspects Lower costs in equipment (mass balances technology) Lower costs in equipment (mass balances technology) Lower costs in training and daily life (draftees for support jobs) Lower costs in training and daily life (draftees for support jobs) Lower costs in level of welfare Lower costs in level of welfare 213. Human aspects 213. Human aspects National enabler ( Motherland cohesion – defense/citizenship) National enabler ( Motherland cohesion – defense/citizenship) Social integrator (social classes’ melting pot :« universal/equal») Social integrator (social classes’ melting pot :« universal/equal») Educational multiplier (school follow-on) Educational multiplier (school follow-on)

6 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta6 II. CONSCRIPTION (cont. 2) 22. Disadvantages 221. Human aspects 221. Human aspects A maladjustment to nowadays’ youth expectations (dividends of peace, growing dissatisfaction with authority) A maladjustment to nowadays’ youth expectations (dividends of peace, growing dissatisfaction with authority) Limitation of possible selection Limitation of possible selection 222. Financial aspects 222. Financial aspects A necessary sustainability ( less funding = selected draft ) A necessary sustainability ( less funding = selected draft ) A more expensive infrastructure (more men = more buildings etc ) A more expensive infrastructure (more men = more buildings etc ) 223. Strategic/military aspects 223. Strategic/military aspects A « territorial- capable » force (suited to conventional threats) A « territorial- capable » force (suited to conventional threats) A limited skilled force (by nature, by need) A limited skilled force (by nature, by need)

7 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta7 II. CONSCRIPTION (end) 23. Risks 221. Human aspects 221. Human aspects A growing ( inescapable ? ) « unequal opportunity » A growing ( inescapable ? ) « unequal opportunity » 222. Financial aspects 222. Financial aspects A declining sustainability ( less funding = selected draft) A declining sustainability ( less funding = selected draft) A trend to buy cheap/inefficient equipment A trend to buy cheap/inefficient equipment 223. Strategic/military aspects 223. Strategic/military aspects A limited skilled force A limited skilled force A « territorial- capable » force (unsuited to multi-facetted threats) A « territorial- capable » force (unsuited to multi-facetted threats) Communal/confessional/terrorists/insurgents potential harbour Communal/confessional/terrorists/insurgents potential harbour

8 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta8 III. PROFESSIONAL FORCE (1) 31. Advantages 311. Human aspects 311. Human aspects All-volunteer system (personal process. Notion of career ) All-volunteer system (personal process. Notion of career ) Freedom of the employer’s choice ( selection criteria ) Freedom of the employer’s choice ( selection criteria ) Internal enhanced cohesion Internal enhanced cohesion 312. Financial aspects 312. Financial aspects Budgetary flexibility linked to evolving political choices Budgetary flexibility linked to evolving political choices Solid but limited infrastructure Solid but limited infrastructure 313. Military aspects 313. Military aspects Better training and discipline (notion of skills and service ) Better training and discipline (notion of skills and service ) Better equipment (smaller size and training allows more sophisticated … but more expensive tools) Better equipment (smaller size and training allows more sophisticated … but more expensive tools) Mission flexibility/adaptability, readiness and deployability Mission flexibility/adaptability, readiness and deployability

9 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta9 III. PROFESSIONAL FORCE (cont.2) 32. Disadvantages 321. Human aspects 321. Human aspects Recruiting challenge Recruiting challenge Permanent challenge ( necessary retention rate ) Permanent challenge ( necessary retention rate ) 322. Financial aspects 322. Financial aspects Expensive human resource’s cost (promotion, family, pension etc.) Expensive human resource’s cost (promotion, family, pension etc.) Limited but costly infrastructure ( welfare, living conditions) Limited but costly infrastructure ( welfare, living conditions) Expensive peace-time logistical function Expensive peace-time logistical function Expensive training & equipment ( readiness, deployability etc.) Expensive training & equipment ( readiness, deployability etc.) 323. Military aspects 323. Military aspects Unable to face a major national threat ALONE Unable to face a major national threat ALONE Operational reserve back-up Operational reserve back-up

10 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta10 III. PROFESSIONAL FORCE (end) 33. Risks 331. Human aspects331. Human aspects Loss of individual motivation ( career supersedes service ) Loss of individual motivation ( career supersedes service ) Loss of attractiveness ( = declining human resource ) Loss of attractiveness ( = declining human resource ) 332. Financial aspects332. Financial aspects Victim of and subject to political choices ( cuts in budget ) Victim of and subject to political choices ( cuts in budget ) 333. Political/military aspects333. Political/military aspects Pretorian syndrome ( National legitimacy vs. Government faithfulness) Pretorian syndrome ( National legitimacy vs. Government faithfulness) Pretorian syndrome ( Overestimate of national mission = King maker ) Pretorian syndrome ( Overestimate of national mission = King maker )

11 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta11 CONSCRIPTION, PROFESSIONAL FORCES & TOTAL DEFENSE (SOME QUESTIONS & ANSWERS) CONSCRIPTION AND TOTAL DEFENSE (TD). Does it match TD’s end-state ? Yes, it can Does it match TD’s end-state ? Yes, it can What are the conditions ? What are the conditions ?  Political consensus  Financial will and sustainability  Citizenship, sense of Nation within ALL communities  Universality  Strong backbone of officers & NCOs  Professional contingency units for readiness and external crises PROFESSIONAL FORCES AND TOTAL DEFENSE Does it match TD’s end state ? Yes Does it match TD’s end state ? Yes What are the conditions? What are the conditions?  Strong legitimacy of the Armed Forces within public opinion  Country-wide recruiting opportunity  Clear division of labour (police : law & order ; military : national defense)  Strong Reserve & Volunteer components’ back-up A FEW REMARKS All current examples of shift are similar : from draft to professional All current examples of shift are similar : from draft to professional A « dual-purpose sytem » (mix of draft and professional) is possible when: A « dual-purpose sytem » (mix of draft and professional) is possible when:  Conscription was initially the rule (and not the contrary)  Comprehensive calling is no longer possible (budget, mentalities, education)  Financial neans do not allow a all-professional force.

12 29 AUG 2007 DCAF-LESPERSSI-DEPHAN RI. Jakarta 12 QUESTIONS ? DISCUSSION


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