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CHAPTER 14 PERSONAL CARE & HEALTHY BEHAVIORS. LESSON 1 – HEALTHY SKIN, HAIR AND NAILS Facts about skin: Largest organ of the body Produces perspiration.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 PERSONAL CARE & HEALTHY BEHAVIORS. LESSON 1 – HEALTHY SKIN, HAIR AND NAILS Facts about skin: Largest organ of the body Produces perspiration."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 14 PERSONAL CARE & HEALTHY BEHAVIORS

2 LESSON 1 – HEALTHY SKIN, HAIR AND NAILS Facts about skin: Largest organ of the body Produces perspiration to help keep body cool Main organ of the integumentary system Physical barrier between the outside world and internal organs 1 st line of defense against pathogens entering the body Structure and Function of the Skin Skin has 2 main layers 1.Epidermis – the outer, thinner layer of skin (living and dead cells) 2.Dermis – thicker layer under the epidermis (connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves

3 LESSON 1 - CONTINUED 3.Melanin – a pigment that gives the skin, hair, and iris of the eye their color People with fair skin are at risk for skin damage from UV radiation 4.Sebaceous glands – structures within the skin that produce an oily secretion called sebum Main purpose of sebum is to keep the skin from drying out 5.Sweat glands – structures within the dermis that secrete perspiration through ducts to pores on the skin’s surface Why do we sweat? Healthy Skin Wash your face every morning and evening with mild soap and water Daily bathing helps remove and slow the growth of the bacteria that causes body odor

4 LESSON 1 - CONTINUED Skin and the Sun When skin is exposed to UV rays, melanin production is increased List 2 ways to avoid sunburns: a)Wear sunscreen b)Wear protective clothing Body Piercing and Tattooing What are you at risk of contracting? a)Hepatitis B b)Hepatitis C c)HIV Skin Problems Acne – pores become clogged, bacteria thrives in the trapped oil, most common among teens

5 LESSON 1 - CONTINUED Warts – are caused by a virus a)Usually non – cancerous b)Can be acquired through contact with infected skin Vitiligo – a condition in which patches of skin have lost all pigment Boils – form when hair follicles become infected with bacteria Moles – spots that contain extra melanin, most moles are harmless 6.Melanoma – the most serious form of skin cancer 7.Hair follicle – a structure that surrounds the root of a hair 8.Dandruff – a condition that can occur if the scalp becomes too dry

6 LESSON 1 - CONTINUED

7 CHAPTER 14 – LESSON 2 Caring for the Teeth and Mouth 1.Periodontium – the area immediately around the teeth Good dental health includes: a)Regular dental visits b)Floss properly c)Eat a well balanced diet including foods that contain phosphorus, calcium, and vitamin C The tooth is made of 3 parts: Crown Neck Root 2.Pulp – tissue that contains the blood vessels and nerves of a tooth 3.Plaque – a sticky colorless film that acts on sugar to form acids that destroy tooth enamel and irritate gums Tooth decay occurs when the bacteria in plaque produces acids that destroy tooth enamel

8 LESSON 2 - CONTINUED Problems of the Teeth and Mouth Halitosis (bad breath) – can be caused by eating certain food, poor oral hygiene, smoking, bacteria on tongue, decayed teeth, or gum disease 4.Peridontal disease – an inflammation of the peridontal structures (caused by bacteria) – gum disease 5.Tartar – hard crust-like substance formed when plaque hardens Malocclusion – (bad bite) sometimes corrected by wearing braces Oral cancer (cancer of the mouth), bad breath, and receding gums are all side effects of tobacco use.

9 LESSON 2 - CONTINUED

10 LESSON 3 – EYE CARE One of the main functions of the eye is to gather light 1.Lacrimal gland – gland that secretes tears into ducts that empty into the eyes Tears Keep the surface of the eyeball moist Keep eyeball clear of foreign particles Consists of water, salts, and mucus. To help protect the eye against infection Parts of the eye: 2.Sclera – the tough white part of the eye 3.Cornea – a transparent tissue that bends and focuses light before it enters the lens 4.Choroid – a thin structure that lines the inside of the sclera

11 LESSON 3 - CONTINUED The iris is the colored portion of the eye that contains the pupil The pupil is the hole through which light reaches the inner eye 5.Retina – light sensitive membrane on which images are cast by the cornea (light sensitive cells made of rods and cones) 6.Vitreous humor – a cavity filled with gelatin like substance that helps the eyeball stay firm The lens curves when it focuses on objects that are near List 4 healthy behaviors that will help keep your eyes healthy Follow a well balanced diet – Vitamin A Protect your eyes Have regular eye exams Rest your eyes regularly

12 LESSON 3 - CONTINUED Eye Problems: Myopia – (nearsightedness) a person cannot see distant objects clearly Hyperopia – (farsightedness) near objects appear blurry Astigmatism – the eye cannot focus properly Strabismus – eyes appear off center, or turned inward or outward All of these problems are correctable Diseases of the Eye Detached retina – warning signs include blurred vision or seeing bright flashes of light Glaucoma – abnormally high pressure inside the eye, can lead to irreversible damage Cataracts – your clear lens (of the eye) becomes cloudy and images appear foggy or blurry – old lens can be removed and replaced with a new artificial lens Macular degeneration – when cells of the macula begin to malfunction, leading cause of vision loss for people over 60, no cure and limited treatment

13 LESSON 3 - CONTINUED Sty – an inflamed swelling condition of a sebaceous gland near the eyelash Conjunctivitis (pinkeye) – inflammation of the conjunctiva, a thin membrane that covers the sclera lining of the eyelids Cones – allow humans to see in color

14 LESSON 4 – EARS AND HEARING PROTECTION The ear has 3 main sections The Outer Ear: The visible part of the ear called the auricle The auricle helps channel sound waves into the 1.External auditory canal – a passageway about 1 inch long that leads to the remaining portion of the outer ear, the eardrum Lined with tiny hairs and glands that produce wax to protect the ear from dust and foreign objects Eardrum (tympanic membrane) a thin membrane that acts as a barrier between the outer and middle ear The Middle Ear: Directly behind the eardrum 2. Auditory ossicles – 3 small bones that connect the eardrum to the inner ear (smallest bones in the body)

15 LESSON 4 - CONTINUED Connected to the throat by the eustachian tube Tube allows pressure to be equalized on either side of the eardrum when you swallow or yawn The Inner Ear: 3.Labyrinth – network of curved or spiral passages with 3 main parts a)Cochlea – area of hearing in the inner ear b)vestibule – where balanced is controlled c)Semicircular canals – also where balance is controlled Healthy Behaviors for Healthy Ears Clean them regularly Protect the outer ear from injury and extreme cold Wear protective gear when playing sports Keep foreign objects out of the ear

16 LESSON 4 - CONTINUED See a health care professional if an ear infection is suspected Regular hearing tests Avoid loud noises (can lead to): a)Temporary hearing loss b)Deafness (permanent hearing loss) Problems of the Ear Hearing loss can be divided into 2 categories: Conductive hearing loss (sound waves are not passed from the outer ear to the inner ear) most common in children due to a build up of fluid Sensorineural hearing loss (results from damage to the cochlea, auditory nerve, or the brain) 4.tinnitus – a condition in which a ringing, buzzing, whistling, roaring, hissing, or other sounds is heard in the ear in the absences of external sound Natural aging Certain health conditions (high blood pressure) Over exposure to loud noises

17 LESSON 4 - CONTINUED Protect Your Ears Lower the volume of the noise Wear ear plugs Limit the length of time you are exposed to loud noise


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