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Chapter Four (Part I): Gamelan in Central Java
Layers of Influences on JavaIndigenous animistic beliefs Hinduism Buddhism Islam (16th century)
Layers of Influences on Java (cont.)Various Indonesian kingdoms/empires Portuguese, Dutch, British colonial rule Independence in 1945
Javanese Tuning SystemsSlendro 5 pitches (pentatonic) Equidistant intervals (all “medium-sized”) Pelog 7 pitches (heptatonic) Non-equidistant intervals (“big” and “small”) 5-pitch subsets
Loud Style vs. Soft StyleBronze instruments in foreground Elaboration by bronze instruments Soft style Non-bronze instruments in foreground Singing
Musical Layers in ladrang "Pangkur“Underlying cycle (“colotomic”) Main melody (balungan) Elaboration (panerusan) Rhythmic control / drumming
Summary Layers of ideas, philosophies, and approachesMusical layers in gamelan music colotomic (time marking) tempo leader (drummer) main melody (balungan) elaboration
Summary (cont.) Two tuning systems Two different “styles” SlendroPelog Two different “styles” “loud” style “soft” style
Chapter Three: Gamelan in Cirebon. Indonesia 13,000+ islands, 300+ languages Former Dutch colony Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (“Unity in Diversity”)
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