Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia. 2 Terms & Ideas to know  Gamelan  Tuning and scales (Pélog and Sléndro)  Gendhing  Loud and Soft Playing styles 

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia. 2 Terms & Ideas to know  Gamelan  Tuning and scales (Pélog and Sléndro)  Gendhing  Loud and Soft Playing styles "— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia

2 2 Terms & Ideas to know  Gamelan  Tuning and scales (Pélog and Sléndro)  Gendhing  Loud and Soft Playing styles  Differences between Bali and Java

3 3 Southeast Asia/South Pacific  Australia (didjeridu)  Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, etc.  Indonesia  Java  Bali

4 4

5 5 General Information on Indonesia  Old cultural traditions, but much cultural diversity due to migration  Boundaries formed during centuries of European colonial domination; many islands  A national language adopted in early twentieth century, but more than two hundred separate languages exist.  Pan-Indonesian popular culture is developing, but regional diversity continues.

6 6

7 7 Heavy Population Centers  Jakarta in Java is the Indonesian capital, about nine million people (New York City is 7,500,000); extreme wealth and poverty  Central Java is one of the most densely populated regions in the world

8 8

9 9 Two Major Ethnic Groups  Javanese is the largest ethnic group on the island (about 2/3); common language and cultural traits  Sudanese, Language and arts are distinct from the Javanese

10 10 General Qualities of the People  Mostly a farming society, Wet-rice agriculture  Religious practices: most profess to be Muslim, but only a small percentage follow orthodox practice. More adhere to an Islam- Hinduism-Buddhism blend. Layer of belief in benevolent and mischievous spirits and in ancestor veneration

11 11 Kraton in Yogyakarta  One of Java’s two major royal courts; official home of the tenth sultan  A complex of small buildings and open pavilions  Earthly symbol of the ordered universe; oriented to the cardinal directions  Ruler lives at the very center; imbued with divine powers  Kraton still regarded as a cultural center

12 12 Gamelon of the Kraton in Yogyakarta 

13 13 What Is a Gamelan?

14 14  Gamelan refers to set of instruments unified by their tuning, and by decorative carvings and paintings  Primarily consists of several kinds of metal slab instruments and tuned knobbed gongs  Also normally have at least one drum and may have other kinds of instruments; vary in size; some ancient gamelans have small number of instrument  Those in central Java usually large with wide range of instruments

15 15 Gamelan ‘Ensembles’  Gamelan ensembles are kept in many of these court pavilions  Some old and used for rare ritual occasions  Some newer and used more frequently  Most believed to contain special powers  Are shown respect and given offerings

16 16

17 17 Court Gamelans Were Often Quite Formal

18 18 Four Sample Instruments  Rebab (fiddle)  Saron and Gender are slab instruments (xylophones)  Bonang uses knobbed gongs

19 19 Gamelan video from Bali (JVCv9-1 “Sekar jupun”)  Begins with knobbed gong players alternating with players of xylophone-type instrument  The main body of the piece begins with double-headed drum  Large gong marks dividing point; the small cymbals are almost constant  Notice suling (flute) and rebab (fiddle)

20 20 Gamelans Serve Various Purposes Now  Used in all-night performances of shadow plays  Classical Javanese dance rehearsed regularly and performed for special palace functions  More activities outside of the court in contemporary society; sponsored by private individuals, national radio station, public schools and colleges

21 21 Some Universities in the U.S. now have Gamelans

22 22

23 23 Pythagorean vs. Equal Tempered Tuning Problem: The Pythagorean Comma There are several ways to explain the Pythagorean comma. In a nutshell you cannot tune a circle of Pythagorean 5ths and end up where you started. ***** Start from C and tune perfect 5ths all the way around to B#. You will find that C and B# are not in tune. *****

24 24 A Pythagorean perfect 5th is 702 cents = 8424 cents A half step is divided into 100 cents. There are 12 half steps to an octave. Therefore, an octave is 1200 cents = 8400 cents = 24 cents = Pythagorean Comma Result: From the 17 th century to the present, the music of the Western Hemisphere has used Equal Temperament, created by lowering the perfect 5 th from 702 cents to 700 cents.

25 25 See more information at: perament.html

26 26 Present-day gamelans tuned to one of two scale systems  Sléndro = Five-tone system made up of nearly equidistant intervals; normally notated (no 4)  Pélog = Seven-tone system made up of large and small intervals; normally notated  Gamelans may consist entirely of one or the other or may have a full set of instruments for each system (double ensemble)  The scale systems are incompatible and rarely played simultaneously

27 27 Arrangement of Instruments  No standard arrangement of the instruments in the performance space  Almost without exception, they are placed at right angles to one another  Reflects Javanese concern with the cardinal directions  Larger instruments generally in the back, smaller in the front

28 28 Two major groupings of instruments  “Loud-playing” are associated with festivals, processions, and other noisy outdoor events; strictly instrumental; drums and louder metal instruments used  “Soft-playing” are intended for more intimate gatherings, often indoors; involved singing; instruments are played softly

29 29 Example of Javanese Gamelan  More formal and sedate than Bali  CD: A Javanese Ghendhing (Gamelan composition) in performance  CD 2/Track 3: “Bubaran Kembang Pacar”  An example of loud-playing style  Uses the pélog scale system, with large and small intervals

30 30 Gamelan construction  Bronze is the preferred metal  Brass and iron are also used, especially in rural areas; cheaper  Bronze gamelan instruments are forged in a long and difficult process; metal worker held in high esteem; forging requires great skill  Forging also imbued with mystical significance

31 31 Construction (cont.)  Process is believed to make one especially vulnerable to dangerous forces in the spirit world; smiths make ritual preparation  Largest gongs require a full month of labor; a truckload of coal  A month of meditation, prayer, fasting, and preparation by the smith  Careful handling; a false hit can crack the gong and ruin the work

32 32 Each Gamelan is Generally a Unique Set  Would look and sound out of place in another ensemble  Attempting to copy the tuning and design of palace instruments used to be forbidden  Reserved for the ruler and his power  Great care is taken to arrive at a pleasing tuning; one that is seen to fit the particular physical condition of the instruments; fits the taste of the individual owner

33 33 Javanese music is closely interrelated with other performing arts  “Concerts” of gamelan music rare; more often as social event  Might be played to commemorate birth, circumcision, wedding; or sponsored by family as background music for social event; guests socialize and talk freely  Most often performed as accompaniment for dance or theater

34 34 Gamelan and Drama  The ensemble might accompany a drama based on Javanese legendary history  Often used in shadow puppet theater—wayang kulit; Performances normally last until dawn  Master puppeteer, dhalang, operates all the puppets; story typically puppeteer’s own rendition of a well-known story, or episode from the Ramayana or Mahabharata  Musicians do not play constantly, but must be ready to respond to a signal from the puppeteer; a good musician knows many hundreds of pieces

35 35 The shadow puppet show (wayang kulit)  JVCv10-2.  CD 2:4 – “Playon Lesum” (slendro pathet nam)  First one begins in soft style; become loud; ends after repeating the first gongan, when puppet uses signal  Second loud-playing style; the saron plays some variation phrases; tailored

36 36

37 37 Bali: A Small Island Just East of Java  Spectacular beauty; most people involved in some kind of artistic work (sadly, recent bombing)  Blend of Hindu and Buddhist practices; not as much Islam influence

38 38 Balinese Gamelan  Music similar to Java, but not the same; more variety of ensembles; music more dynamic and exciting  Instruments tuned slightly off to create “shimmering” sound

39 39 “Kosalia Arini”  CD example (2:5) older piece but notice more asymmetical, less “stiff” quality than Javanese  By Wayan Beratha

40 40 Balinese Gamelan

41 41 Indonesian Popular Music  Many popular styles  Example: Krakatau  CD 2:6 Shufflendang-Shufflending (excerpt)

42 42 Terms & Ideas to know  Gamelan  Tuning and scales (Pélog and Sléndro)  Gendhing  Loud and Soft Playing styles  Differences between Bali and Java

43 43 Homework: due Wednesday, 4/12 Online Quiz Questions: 1.What is a gendhing, and what are the roles of each gamelan instrument in a Javanese gendhing? 2.What features of the Balinese gamelan gong kebyar music (“Kosalia Arini”) compare & contrast with the two Javanese gamelan examples?


Download ppt "1 Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia. 2 Terms & Ideas to know  Gamelan  Tuning and scales (Pélog and Sléndro)  Gendhing  Loud and Soft Playing styles "

Similar presentations


Ads by Google