2 Exposition Writing that explains. Most essays contain some exposition because they need to convey information, give background, or tell how a process works or how events occurred.Exposition “tells” rather than “shows” as in narration.
3 Narration Telling a story, or giving an account of an event. This is part of many essays, and writers often tell an anecdote, or short narrative, to make a point, as support for an argument.Even when essays are entirely narration, the events of the story normally lead to some conclusion.
4 Patterns for Developing Ideas in Writing Process AnalysisThe pattern of development that presents a series of steps in a procedure in chronological order and shows how this sequence of steps leads to particular results.Explaining how to do something, how others do it, or how certain things occur.
5 Patterns for Developing Ideas in Writing Cause and EffectThe pattern of development that discusses either the reasons for an occurrence or the observed or predicted consequences of an occurrence.Process describes how something happens; cause and effect analyzes why something happens.
6 Patterns for Developing Ideas in Writing Comparison and ContrastExamination of similarities and differences. One usually, but not always, appears with the other.
7 Patterns for Developing Ideas in Writing Classification and DivisionThe categorizing of elements into classes or groups, or the separation of something into its separate parts.Classification categorizes individual items into categories according to common characteristics; therefore, classification generalizes.
8 Patterns for Developing Ideas in Writing Classification and Division cont.Division specifies.Division breaks up a whole into its parts.
9 Patterns for Developing Ideas in Writing DefinitionThe pattern of development in which a writer explains what someone or something is. Explanation of the nature of a word, thing, or idea.Most good definition essays are really redefinition: they attempt to make us understand something we thought we already understood.
10 Patterns for Developing Ideas in Writing ExemplificationThe pattern of development that uses a single extended example or a series of shorter examples to support a thesis.Providing specific instances in support of a general idea.