Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Conclusions, Reasons, and Enthymemes Chapter 6 in The Shape of Reason.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Conclusions, Reasons, and Enthymemes Chapter 6 in The Shape of Reason."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conclusions, Reasons, and Enthymemes Chapter 6 in The Shape of Reason

2 What, according to Gage, does it mean to “reason” and “offer a line of reasoning?” “Reasoning is a process of creating relationships between ideas in such a way that belief in one is intended to follow as a consequence of belief in another” (79). Idea #1The rainfall in Fort Bragg regularly exceeds 35 inches per year. Idea #2:Fort Bragg is not a good place to live. Example: Fort Bragg is not a good place to live because it rains, on average, more than 35 inches per year. Example: The rainfall in Fort Bragg regularly exceeds 35 inches per year; therefore, it is not a good place to live.

3 Enthymemes and Audience Values How does an enthymeme assume audience values? “Enthymemes, therefore, can be said to derive from beliefs that the particular audience is assumed to have accepted as given” (83). “As long as this unstated assumption is a matter of agreement, the reason seems like a reason. As soon as the assumption is denied, or if it is not shared at the outset, then the reason seems like no reason at all” (83).

4 “Reasoning is the glue that holds ideas together” (82). Idea #1: Students at CRMC receive more one-on-one attention from their instructors than do students at typical community colleges. Idea #2: CRMC is a smaller college than the typical community college. Combine with because and therefore. CRMC students receive more one-on-one attention from their instructors than do students at typical community colleges because CRMC is a smaller than most colleges. CRMC is a smaller college than the typical community college; therefore, CRMC students receive more one-on-one attention from their instructors than do students at typical colleges.

5 Idea #1: Laws that violate basic human rights are immoral. Idea #2: Citizens should break laws that promote racial discrimination. therefore…. Laws that violate basic human rights are immoral; therefore, citizens should break laws that promote racial discrimination. because…. Citizens should break laws that promote racial discrimination because laws that violate basic human rights are immoral. What’s the assumption?

6 Idea #1: Doctors possess unique professional expertise that allows them, but not lay people or legislators, to determine what medications and treatments will best reduce the suffering of their terminally ill patients. Idea #2: Marijuana should be a legally available medication/treatment for doctors to prescribe to reduce the suffering of their terminally ill patients. because… Marijuana should be a legally available prescription because doctors, more than legislators and lay people, know best what treatments and medications will reduce the suffering of their terminally ill patients. therefore… Doctors possess unique professional expertise that allows them, but not lay people or legislators, to determine what medications and treatments will best reduce the suffering of their terminally ill patients; therefore, marijuana should be a legally available medication/treatment What’s the assumption?

7 "The phrase "under God" should not be stricken from the Pledge of Allegiance because most Americans describe themselves as Christian." Identify the conclusion and the reason in this enthymeme. What is the assumption of the enthymeme? An academic, professional audience is likely to reject the assumption of enthymeme. Why? What happens to the enthymeme when the audience rejects the underlying assumption? What would the writer have to do to convince an academic, professional audience that enthymeme is worth accepting?

8 “The needs of humans are more important than the needs of animals; therefore, a logging company should be able to clear-cut its forests as long as doing so won’t harm humans.” Identify the conclusion and the reason in this enthymeme. What is the assumption of the enthymeme? An academic, professional audience is likely to reject the assumption of enthymeme. Why? What happens to the enthymeme when the audience rejects the underlying assumption? What would the writer have to do to convince an academic, professional audience that enthymeme is worth accepting?

9 How is the use of symbols in argument different from the use of symbols in mathematics? Numbers have fixed and certain meanings. 2+2=4 Words have ambiguity. The second amendment grants the right to citizens to possess arms; therefore, citizens have the right to own handguns. Abortion is murder because it kills a human being.


Download ppt "Conclusions, Reasons, and Enthymemes Chapter 6 in The Shape of Reason."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google