Presentation on theme: "University of Thessaly Department of Planning and Regional Development Graduate Program in European Regional Development Studies Fall Semester, 2013-14."— Presentation transcript:
University of Thessaly Department of Planning and Regional Development Graduate Program in European Regional Development Studies Fall Semester, 2013-14 Course: The Geography of European Integration: Economy, Society and Institutions Lecturers: Petrakos G., Camhis M., Topaloglou L., Bogiazides N.
European Politics European politics at sub-Union / sub-federal, national level All those separate states Where Do they All Come From? Where Do they All Belong?
European Politics In the advent of the modern era, at the outset of the 17the century, most European regimes fall within a three-fold typology of states: a) Small principalities run by aristocratic families or bishops (including papal states), some owing to greater or lesser extent allegiance to a weak empire, the Holy Roman Empire, whose ruler was elected by the Imperial Diet – assembly of the princes a) City-states – central a) Large absolutist states - France, England and Spain
Europe in 1600
European Politics The end of the 18 th century sees the emergence of the new typology: a) The ascent of the nation-state (1799 - French Revolution, from ‘King of France’ to ‘King of the French’) a) The rise of the empires – Germany, Austro- Hungary, Russia, but also intermittently France and, in a way, Britain
Delacroix's Liberty (1830) – liberty as national self-realisation, the subsumption of human emancipation (18 th cent.) into the project of nationhood (19 th cent.)
Europe in 1800
European Politics The advent of mass industrial society, politically represented through the nation-state, also involves the conceptual and institutional split of political economy into politics and economics, the split of the Pnyka from the Agora. An affliction besetting also the nascent socialist movement (7 th Congress of the Second International in Stuttgart, 1907, acknowledging the distinction between a political realm – the concern of the party – and an economic realm – the concern of trade unions.
European Politics End of World War One: Fall of the empires, espousal of the principle of national self- determination (including by the early Soviet Union*), generalisation the institutional form of the nation-state From Augsburg (1555 – Cuius regio, eius religio [whose realm, his religion]) to Versailles (1919 – Woodrow Wilson and principle of national) * (Lenin – ‘[it] would be wrong to interpret the right to self-determination as meaning anything but the right to existence as a separate state’ – versus Rosa Luxemburg – cultural autonomy)
How neat they look - spot the tiny tinderbox in the middle, soon to set it all ablaze
European Politics Of the 27 European Union states today Republics France Germany} 1958 Italy Ireland} 1973 Greece} 1981 Portugal} 1986 Austria Finland} 1996 Constitutional monarchies Belgium Luxembourg} 1958 Netherlands Denmark United Kingdom} 1973 Spain} 1986 Sweden} 1995
European Politics Of the 27 European Union states today Republics FranceCyprus Germany} 1958Czech Republic ItalyEstonia Ireland} 1973Hungary Greece} 1981Latvia Portugal} 1986Lithuania} 2004 AustriaMalta Finland} 1996Poland Slovakia Slovenia Bulgaria Romania} 2007 Constitutional monarchies Belgium Luxembourg} 1958 Netherlands Denmark United Kingdom} 1973 Spain} 1986 Sweden} 1995
European Politics Distinction between presidential republics and prime ministerial republics – between the seat of sovereignty resting (primarily) in Parliament (prime ministerial system) or in the Executive (presidential system)
European Politics Of the 27 European Union states today Unitary states BulgariaLithuania CyprusLuxembourg Czech RepublicMalta DenmarkNetherlands EstoniaPortugal FinlandPoland FranceSlovenia GreeceSlovakia HungarySpain ItalySweden IrelandRomania LatviaUnited Kingdom Federal states Austria Belgium Germany
European Politics Unitary states Federal states
European Politics Switzerland – the Fractal State Belgium – the Dual State
European Politics Grand politico-ideological movements in post- war Europe East-West divide Between divergence and convergence the anti-colonial movement the role of the market the UN disarmement and the Helsinki process
European Politics In the East Soviet model and its discontents (4 major rebellions against it Yugoslavia-style federalism Romania-style dictatorship Hungary and Czechoslovakia style market entryism
European Politics In the West, until 1980 Centre-right Keynesianism – (saving private capital) Social-democratic Keynesianism – establishing and expanding the welfare state
European Politics In the West, until 1980 On the left Eurocommunism Old style stalinism Trotskyism Maoism (May ’68, anti-colonial movement, anti-Vietnam war movement)
European Politics In the West, post 1980 Thatcherite liberalism ‘roling back the frontiers of the state’ at an ideological, yet not practical, level Partial dismantling of the welfare state Weakening og the trade union movement Americanisation of European politics
European Politics Wherefore European Politics Institutional convergence or divergence? A federation without a nation? Is a citizens' Europe feasible or will state building yet again subsume human emancipation into a new national state construct, with a raison d' etat diverging or opposing an illusive etat de raison?