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The ABCs of the USA The ABCs of the USA 21st Century College English: Book 3 Unit 5: Text A.

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2 The ABCs of the USA The ABCs of the USA 21st Century College English: Book 3 Unit 5: Text A

3 Lead-in Activities Lead-in Activities Lead-in Activities Lead-in Activities Text Organization Text OrganizationText OrganizationText Organization Writing and Reading Skills Writing and Reading SkillsWriting and Reading SkillsWriting and Reading Skills Language Points Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Guided Practice Guided PracticeGuided PracticeGuided Practice Assignment AssignmentAssignment Unit 5: Text A The ABCs of the USA

4 Lead-in Activities Warm-up Questions 1. Nowadays many people are surging into America, how will you comment on this? 1. Nowadays many people are surging into America, how will you comment on this? 2. How do you know about America? What do think of this country? 2. How do you know about America? What do think of this country? 3. If you were given the chance to choose a foreign country to live, will you choose America? Why or why not? 3. If you were given the chance to choose a foreign country to live, will you choose America? Why or why not?

5 Text Organization I.Bring about the main focus of the text and make clear that the author comes form Britain while his wife is all-American. II. Explanation of America. (In an A-to-Z list to identify differences between America and other countries.) The ABC of the U.S.A: America, Seen with European Eyes Paras. 1-2 Paras. 3-28

6 Writing and Reading Skills 1)The main writing skill in this text is LISTING. There are many different way of using listing. The author prefers an A-to-Z explanation arranged according to the sequence of alphabetical order. It is equally effective to use numerical order or apply phrases such as “ one of the features” and “another feature”. 2)Identifying the writer’s purpose in reading materials: Some of the clues that you can watch for to help you identify what kind of writing you’re dealing with include: Some of the clues that you can watch for to help you identify what kind of writing you’re dealing with include:

7 a) Informational wring features facts, observations and evidence, not opinions or value judgments. The writer may present theories to explain the facts, but the aim is not so much to change the reader’s opinion as it is to clarify a question or situation. a) Informational wring features facts, observations and evidence, not opinions or value judgments. The writer may present theories to explain the facts, but the aim is not so much to change the reader’s opinion as it is to clarify a question or situation. b) Persuasive writing features emotional appeals: opinions and arguments, rhetorical questions, evaluating language and/or judgmental language. b) Persuasive writing features emotional appeals: opinions and arguments, rhetorical questions, evaluating language and/or judgmental language. c) Texts written mainly to entertain can, of course, be very varied — but they often use rather informal language, simple sentence structure, dialogs, puns and or figures of speech. c) Texts written mainly to entertain can, of course, be very varied — but they often use rather informal language, simple sentence structure, dialogs, puns and or figures of speech. Writing and Reading Skills

8 The ABCs of the USA American Seen with European Eyes By Michael Dobbs By Michael Dobbs The ABCs of the USA American Seen with European Eyes By Michael Dobbs By Michael Dobbs Text A: Language Points

9 The ABCs of the USA American Seen with European Eyes By Michael Dobbs By Michael Dobbs 1 America can be a strange experience for a foreigner. My wife and I arrived in the United States in January after seven years overseas — four in France, three in Poland. From the jumble of first impressions, we compiled an A-to-Z explanation of why America can be such a foreign country to those who arrive here from Europe. jumble Language Points

10 2 I should explain at the outset that I am from Britain, but my Florida-born wife Lisa is as American as apple pie. In our list, however, A doesn't stand for apple pie. It stands for: at the outsetas American as apple piestands forat the outsetas American as apple piestands for 3 Ambition. In the Old World, people are taught to hide it. Here it‘’s quite proper to announce that you’re after the boss’s job or want to make a million dollars by the age of 30. Ambitionafter Ambitionafter 4 Breakfast. The American habit of conducting business at breakfast has reached Europe, but I doubt it will ever really catch on. In France and Britain, breakfast is a family affair. Here, it’s become part of the power game. catch onHere, it’s become part of the power game.catch onHere, it’s become part of the power game. Language Points

11 5 Credit Cards. You really can’t leave home without them. It’s interesting, and somewhat frustrating, to discover that bad credit is better than no credit at all: I was refused a VISA card on the grounds that I didn't have a credit profile. I was refused a VISA card on the grounds that I didn't have a credit profile.I was refused a VISA card on the grounds that I didn't have a credit profile. 6 Dreams. The American Dream is still very much alive. Dreaming great dreams is what keeps American society going — from the waitress who wants to become a car dealer to the street kid who wants to become a basketball star. Europeans dream dreams too, but don't seem to believe in them so much. dealer Language Points

12 7 Exercise. A couple of years ago I came to Washington with some French journalists. As our bus passed a health club on the way to the hotel, the French visitors cheered at the sight of body-conscious Americans bending, stretching and leaping around. America's obsession with physical fitness really amuses — and puzzles — Europeans. at the sight of body-conscious obsessionat the sight of body-conscious obsession 8 First names. In Europe, people progress in a natural and orderly way from the use of last names to the use of first names. Here, it’s first names at first sight. This can cause confusion for Europeans. With everyone on a first-name basis, how can you tell your acquaintances from your friends? In Europe, people progress in a natural and orderly way from the use of last names to the use of first names. Here, it’s first names at first sightIn Europe, people progress in a natural and orderly way from the use of last names to the use of first names. Here, it’s first names at first sight Language Points

13 9 Gadgets. These can be addictive. It’s difficult to imagine now how we survived for so long without automatic ice machines and microwave ovens. addictive 10 Hardware Stores. If I were in charge of arranging the programs of visiting delegations from less-developed countries, I’d include a compulsory visit to a hardware store. These temples of American capitalism reveal a whole range of American values, from the do-it- yourself pioneer spirit through a love of comfort that absolutely astonishes most foreigners. were in charge ofdo-it- yourselfwere in charge ofdo-it- yourself

14 11 Insurance. Americans have policies to cover every possible risk, no matter how remote. So far, we’ve refused supplementary insurance for our car radio, death insurance for our mortgage and accident insurance for our cat. It gives us a feeling of living dangerously. Americans have policies to cover every possible risk, no matter how remotemortgageAmericans have policies to cover every possible risk, no matter how remotemortgage 12Junk food. Anyone who wants to understand why Americans suffer from higher rates of cancer and heart disease only has to look at what they eat. 13 Ketchup. I had to come to America to discover that it can be eaten with anything — from French fries to French cheese. Language Points

15 14 Lines. American lines — beginning with the yellow line at immigration control — are the most orderly in the world. The British queue, once internationally renowned, has begun to decay in recent years. The French queue was never very impressive, and the Italian line is simply a mob. with the yellow line at immigration control queuewith the yellow line at immigration control queue 15 Money. In Europe, everybody likes money, but no one shows it off. Unless it’s been in the family for several generations, there’s often an assumption that it was acquired dishonestly. In America, no one cares how you got it. no one shows it off assumptionno one shows it off assumption Language Points

16 16 No smoking. No longer just a polite request in America, this phrase has become the law. Nobody would dare ask a Frenchman to put out his Galoise in a restaurant. 17 Oliver North. What other major Western democracy lets army officers take over foreign policy? A hero for some, a traitor for others, Ollie (see First Names) is an example of an American recklessness that awes and alarms Europeans. Oliver North Oliver North 18 Patriots. They exist everywhere, of course, but the American version is louder and more self-conscious than the European. In Britain, it's taken for granted that politicians love their country. Here, they're expected to prove it. Language Points

17 19 Quiet. American cities are quieter than European cities — thanks to noise controls on automobiles and to recent environmental legislation. This was a major surprise for someone brought up to assume that America was a noisy place. brought upbrought up 20 Religion. The idea of putting preachers on TV is alarming to Europeans. It’s even more alarming to see them in action. see them in actionsee them in action 21 Sales. Ever since arriving in Washington, we’ve been hurrying to take advantage of this week’s unrepeatable offer, only to discover that it’s usually repeated next week. We’re just catching on that there’s always an excuse for a sale. we’ve been hurrying to take advantage of this week’s unrepeatable offer, only to discover that it’s usually repeated next weekwe’ve been hurrying to take advantage of this week’s unrepeatable offer, only to discover that it’s usually repeated next week Language Points

18 22 Television. That grown-ups can watch game shows and sitcoms at 11 AM amazes me — but the national habit, day or night, is contagious. I recently found myself nodding in agreement with a professor who was saying that American kids watch too much television. Then I realized that I was watching him say this on television. contagiousin agreement with contagiousin agreement with 23 Ulcers. See Work. Language Points

19 24 Visas. Americans don’t need visas to visit Britain (or most European countries, for that matter). To enter the United States, I had to sign a document promising that I would not overthrow the government by force and had no criminal record. One wonders if many terrorists and criminals answer “yes” on these questionnaires. for that matterby forcefor that matterby force 25 Work. People in less developed countries often imagine that they can become rich simply by emigrating to America. But America became a wealthy society through work, work and more work. It’s still true. Language Points

20 26 X-rated movies. We have them in Europe too, but not on motel- room TVs. X-rated movies X-rated movies 27 Yuppies. The European counterpart remains a pale shadow of the all-American original. The animal seems more ambitious, and more common, on this side of the Atlantic. YuppiesThe European counterpart remains a pale shadow of the all-American original YuppiesThe European counterpart remains a pale shadow of the all-American original 28 Zillion. What other nation would invent a number that’s infinitely more than a billion? America may not always be the best, but it certainly thinks big. thinks bigthinks big Language Points

21 jumble — n. a confused or untidy group of things e.g. the jumble which covers the surface of the deskthe jumble which covers the surface of the desk He found an untidy jumble of things in the drawer.He found an untidy jumble of things in the drawer.

22 at the outset — at the beginning e.g. You should explain this to him at the outset.You should explain this to him at the outset. At the outset of his career, he didn't earn very much money.At the outset of his career, he didn't earn very much money.

23 as American as apple pie — typically American Since apple pie is a common dessert in the U.S.A, this comparison emphasizes that Lisa, the writer's wife, is a typical American.

24 stand for — represent; mean e.g. The olive branch stands for peace.The olive branch stands for peace. The abbreviation NSPCC stands for National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.The abbreviation NSPCC stands for National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

25 ambition — n. strong desire for success, power, money, etc. e.g. That politician is full of ambition.That politician is full of ambition. Too much ambition caused John to act selfishly.Too much ambition caused John to act selfishly. Ambition also means the desire eventually to become or do something special. Examples: Her lifelong ambition was to be a teacher. He has always had an ambition to go to New York.

26 after — prep. in search of; with a desire for e.g. I'm after a tie to go with this shirt.I'm after a tie to go with this shirt. I'm sure she's after my husband.I'm sure she's after my husband.

27 catch on — 1. become popular 流行起来 2. understand 懂得, 理解 e.g. Will helicopters ever catch on as a common mode of transport? Will helicopters ever catch on as a common mode of transport? The best thing about this new worker is that he catches on very fast.The best thing about this new worker is that he catches on very fast. The second time the teacher explained the problem, the boy caught on.The second time the teacher explained the problem, the boy caught on. Key: That new song caught on quickly.That new song caught on quickly. Translation: 那首新歌很快流行了起来.

28 catch on — 1. become popular 流行起来 2. understand 懂得, 理解 Key: That new song caught on quickly.That new song caught on quickly. Translation: 那首新歌很快流行了起来.

29 Here, it's become part of the power game. power game — a situation in which different people or groups are competing for power Paraphrase? Key Here in America, breakfast has become one of the activities in the competition for power.Here in America, breakfast has become one of the activities in the competition for power.

30 I was refused a VISA card on the grounds that I didn't have a credit profile. VISA 威世信用卡(美国的一种购物信用卡) Visa International is a credit card and payment system company based in Foster City, near San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Visa is the world's largest consumer payment company, with more than 500 million cards issued and more than half of the world's market in transactions. Visa is collectively owned by more than 20,000 member financial institutions around the world. These institutions issue Visa cards, and each establishes the terms that it will offer to consumers, such as rates and fees. More to learn More to learn

31 credit profile — a short description of a person's reputation in money matters More to learn More to learn I was refused a VISA card on the grounds that I didn't have a credit profile.

32 e.g. His request was disallowed on the grounds that he was not a full member of the club.His request was disallowed on the grounds that he was not a full member of the club. He was always declining their invitations on the grounds of ill health.He was always declining their invitations on the grounds of ill health. Paraphrase? Key I failed to get a VISA card because I didn't have anything in the written form to prove my credit.I failed to get a VISA card because I didn't have anything in the written form to prove my credit. I was refused a VISA card on the grounds that I didn't have a credit profile. on the grounds that — because 根据, 以 … 为理由

33 dealer — n.a person whose business involves buying and selling 商人;证券经纪人 Compare: dealer and businessman Both a dealer and a businessman are people doing business, but a dealer is a trader who handles a certain type of goods and has a specialized knowledge of these goods, while a businessman is a person who not only works in business, but also is the manager of a company. Examples: a used-car dealera used-car dealer a dealer in antique (古董) furniturea dealer in antique (古董) furniture He was a successful businessman before becoming a writer.He was a successful businessman before becoming a writer.

34 the French visitors cheered at the sight of body-conscious Americans bending, stretching and leaping around at the sight of — as soon as seeing (sth. or sb.) 一见之下 ; 立即 e.g. Jane fainted at the sight of blood.Jane fainted at the sight of blood. The child laughed at the sight of the clockwork toy.The child laughed at the sight of the clockwork toy. More to learn More to learn

35 the French visitors cheered at the sight of body-conscious Americans bending, stretching and leaping around The combining form — conscious is used to combine with words such as “ safety ”, “ energy ”, “ weight ”, “ figure ”, “ health ”, etc. to form compounds which indicate that a person thinks this particular aspect of a situation is important, and is aware of or worried about it. e.g. We have to be very safety-conscious with this sort of machine.We have to be very safety-conscious with this sort of machine. He is so weight-conscious — I've never seen anyone so careful about what they eat.He is so weight-conscious — I've never seen anyone so careful about what they eat.

36 obsession —n. a fixed idea from which the mind cannot be freed e.g. Taylor's fascination with bees developed into an obsession.Taylor's fascination with bees developed into an obsession. His obsession with motorbikes infuriates (激怒) his wife.His obsession with motorbikes infuriates (激怒) his wife.

37 In Europe, people progress in a natural and orderly way from the use of last names to the use of first names. Here, it's first names at first sight. In Europe, people use last names in talking to each other when they first meet and don't yet know each other well, and then, unconsciously and step by step, they begin to use first names as they get to know each other better. But here in America, people use first names even when they meet for the first time. Translation ? Key: 在欧洲,人们从用姓到用名,有一个自然有序发展 的过程,在这儿, 第一次见面就直呼其名。 在欧洲,人们从用姓到用名,有一个自然有序发展 的过程,在这儿, 第一次见面就直呼其名。

38 addictive — a. causing a person to be so used to sth. that the person cannot stop using it e.g. Cocaine (可卡因) and nicotine (尼古丁) are addictive substances.Cocaine (可卡因) and nicotine (尼古丁) are addictive substances. The problem with PC games is that they are addictive.The problem with PC games is that they are addictive.

39 be in charge of —be responsible for e.g. Mr. Smith is in charge of this project.Mr. Smith is in charge of this project. Who will be in charge of the department when David leaves?Who will be in charge of the department when David leaves?

40 do-it-yourself —the activity of making or repairing things oneself, instead of paying workmen e.g. The popularity of do-it-yourself (DIY) has put a lot of decorators out of business.The popularity of do-it-yourself (DIY) has put a lot of decorators out of business. A new DIY store has just opened.A new DIY store has just opened.

41 Americans have policies to cover every possible risk, no matter how remote. policy — n. a document which shows the agreement one has made with an insurance company remote — a. (of a possibility, etc) very unlikely to happen; slight Translate into Chinese ? Key 美国人对每一种可能的风险都买保险,无论那种风险多 么微小。 美国人对每一种可能的风险都买保险,无论那种风险多 么微小。

42 mortgage —n. 抵押;抵押贷款 —vt. use (one's land or house) as a guarantee to the lending institution in order to borrow money from it 抵押 e.g. We had a party when we made the last payment on our home mortgage.We had a party when we made the last payment on our home mortgage. I mortgaged the house so my children could go to college.I mortgaged the house so my children could go to college.

43 the yellow line at immigration control the line marked in yellow at international airports in the U.S.A. for people to stand along and have their passports checked by immigration officers Note that the word line in the sentence is used in two different meanings. Here it is a long, thin mark drawn or painted on a surface, but in “American lines” it means a queue, or a number of people standing one behind another forming a continuous row. More to learn More to learn

44 the yellow line at immigration control immigration — n. the coming of people into a country in order to work or settle there Compare: migration, emigration and immigration Migration refers to the movement of numbers of people or creatures from place to place , emigration means leaving one's country to live in another, while immigration is the process of coming into a new country to live. e.g. The biologist studied the route of the birds' migration.The biologist studied the route of the birds' migration. The researcher examined the effects of migration on refugees.The researcher examined the effects of migration on refugees. The persecuted ( 受迫害的 ) family looked forward to emigration.The persecuted ( 受迫害的 ) family looked forward to emigration. There are strict limits on immigration into the country.There are strict limits on immigration into the country.

45 queue —n. a line of people waiting (for a bus, to be served, to enter a place, etc.) —vi. form or join a line 排队 ( 等候 ) e.g. A queue of customers waited for the bank to open. A queue of customers waited for the bank to open. The tourists queued up in front of the palace.The tourists queued up in front of the palace.

46 no one shows it off show off —try to impress people and make them admire your ability, achievements, or possessions show sth. off —show sth. to a lot of people because you are very proud of it e.g. Pay no attention to Susan — she’s just showing off.Pay no attention to Susan — she’s just showing off. Peter was keen to show off his new car.Peter was keen to show off his new car.

47 assumption — n. 1. sth. that is taken as true without proof 假定;臆断 2. the taking (of power or responsibility) 夺取;篡夺 e.g. People often make assumptions that turn out to be false.People often make assumptions that turn out to be false. My assumption was that you would remember the appointment, so I didn't remind you.My assumption was that you would remember the appointment, so I didn't remind you. The rebel's sudden assumption of power shocked the whole nation.The rebel's sudden assumption of power shocked the whole nation.

48 Oliver North — 奥利弗 · 诺斯 Oliver North was former military aide to the US National Security Council, whose name became a household word over the course of the Iran-Contra Affair, American political scandal of 1985 and 1986, in which high-ranking members in the administration of President Ronald Reagan arranged for the secret sales of arms to Iran in direct violation of existing United States laws. The dual goal was to better American relations with Iran and obtain release of American hostages held in Lebanon by pro-Iranian terrorists. Profits from the $30 million in arms sales went to the Nicaraguan right wing “contra” guerrillas to supply arms. North was instrumental in setting up a covered network for providing support to the contras with ship, airplanes, airfield, and secret bank accounts.

49 bring up — nurture and educate (a child) 养育 ; 教育 e.g. When their parents died, an aunt brought them up.When their parents died, an aunt brought them up. David was brought up to respect teachers.David was brought up to respect teachers.

50 see them in action If you see someone or something in action, you see them doing the job or activity that they are trained or designed to do. Translate into Chinese ? Key 看到他们真的上了电视 看到他们真的上了电视 e.g. exciting photos of ski jumpers in actionexciting photos of ski jumpers in action I’d like to see the new computer system in action.I’d like to see the new computer system in action.

51 Ever since arriving in Washington, we’ve been hurrying to take advantage of this week's unrepeatable offer, only to discover that it's usually repeated next week take advantage of — make use of; profit from 利用 More to learn More to learne.g. You should take advantage of the low prices and buy.You should take advantage of the low prices and buy. The government's complicated tax rules take advantage of the people who don't understand them.The government's complicated tax rules take advantage of the people who don't understand them.

52 Translate into Chinese ? only to do sth. — to do sth. as a disappointing or surprising result Key 自从到达华盛顿以后,我们总是急匆匆地赶去享受本 周的一次性削价优惠,结果却发现下周又会出现这种 优惠。 自从到达华盛顿以后,我们总是急匆匆地赶去享受本 周的一次性削价优惠,结果却发现下周又会出现这种 优惠。 Ever since arriving in Washington, we’ve been hurrying to take advantage of this week's unrepeatable offer, only to discover that it's usually repeated next week e.g. Scott arrived at the South Pole only to find that Amundsen had got there before him.Scott arrived at the South Pole only to find that Amundsen had got there before him. More to do More to do

53 only to do sth. More to do More to do Rewrite each of the following sentences, using an “ only + to infinitive ” clause. (Ex. X) 1.After driving all night we got to Amy's place, and then we unexpectedly discovered that she was away for the weekend. We drove all night [to get] to Amy’s place, only to discover that she was away for the weekend.  We drove all night [to get] to Amy’s place, only to discover that she was away for the weekend.

54 only to do sth. More to do More to do Rewrite each of the following sentences, using an “ only + to infinitive ” clause. (Ex. X) 2.He spent ages negotiating for a pay increase, and then he unexpectedly resigned from his job soon after he'd received it. He spent ages negotiating for a pay increase, only to resign from his job soon after he’d received it.  He spent ages negotiating for a pay increase, only to resign from his job soon after he’d received it.

55 only to do sth. More to do More to do Rewrite each of the following sentences, using an “ only + to infinitive ” clause. (Ex. X) 3.He spent four years getting a degree, and then he was surprised to learn that there were no jobs for graduates. He spent for years getting a degree, only to learn that there were no jobs for graduates.  He spent for years getting a degree, only to learn that there were no jobs for graduates.

56 only to do sth. More to do More to do Rewrite each of the following sentences, using an “ only + to infinitive ” clause. (Ex. X) 4.I hurried to the shop, and then was surprised to find it was closed. I hurried to the shop only to find it was closed.  I hurried to the shop only to find it was closed.

57 only to do sth. More to do More to do Rewrite each of the following sentences, using an “ only + to infinitive ” clause. (Ex. X) 5.Scott arrived at the South Pole on January 18th, and then unexpectedly found that Amudsen had got there before him. Scott arrived at the South Pole on January 18th, only to find that Amudsen had got there before him.  Scott arrived at the South Pole on January 18th, only to find that Amudsen had got there before him.

58 only to do sth. Rewrite each of the following sentences, using an “ only + to infinitive ” clause. (Ex. X) 6.I raced home to tell my family the good news, and then unexpectedly fell down the stairs and broke my leg. I raced home to tell my family the good news, only to fall down the stairs and break my leg.  I raced home to tell my family the good news, only to fall down the stairs and break my leg.

59 contagious — a. 1.(of a feeling or attitude) spreading quickly from person to person ( 情绪等 ) 感染性的 2.(of a disease) that can spread from person to person ( 疾病 ) 传染的 e.g. Laughter is often contagious.Laughter is often contagious. The flu is a highly contagious disease.The flu is a highly contagious disease.

60 in agreement with — 同意,赞同 e.g. The business partners were never in agreement with each other about marketing strategies.The business partners were never in agreement with each other about marketing strategies. As to this matter, I'm in complete agreement with you.As to this matter, I'm in complete agreement with you.

61 e.g. I'm going to bed early, and so for that matter should you (= you should also).I'm going to bed early, and so for that matter should you (= you should also). Don't talk like that to your mother — or to anyone else for that matter (= nor to anyone else either).Don't talk like that to your mother — or to anyone else for that matter (= nor to anyone else either). for that matter — (used to show that a statement is true in another situation or that it can also refer to another person)

62 e.g. The soldiers took the castle by force.The soldiers took the castle by force. The police had to scatter the crowd by force.The police had to scatter the crowd by force. by force — by fierce or violent means 用武力或强迫手段

63 X-rated movies — movies having a rating of X, movies that are relating to or characterized by explicit sexual material or activity, produced for exhibition or viewing by adult audiences Today the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rates films to provide guidance to viewers about what kind of material the movie is likely to contain. There are five ratings. “G” (General) indicates that the film is suitable for all ages. “PG” (Parental Guidance) means that some material may be inappropriate for children. “PG-13” means that some material may be unsuitable for children under age 13. “R” (Restricted) means that anyone under age 17 must be accompanied by a parent or adult guardian. “NC-17” (No Children under 17) means that no one under age 17 is admitted.

64 Yuppies — n. 雅皮士 (Young Urban Professional 的缩写, 即城 市职业阶层中的年轻人士 ) Yuppies usually have a derogative meaning of a young middle-class professional person working in a city. It is an acronym (首字母缩合词) and derivation (派生词) of “young urban professionals”.

65 The European counterpart remains a pale shadow of the all-American original. be a (pale) shadow of — be less powerful or influential or effective than More to learn More to learne.g. The new minister is a pale shadow of his predecessor.The new minister is a pale shadow of his predecessor. She used to be a great player, but now she's only a shadow of her former self.She used to be a great player, but now she's only a shadow of her former self.

66 original — a.a thing from which another is copied, imitated or translated Paraprase? Key The European yuppies are much less impressive than the typical yuppies of America where they originated.The European yuppies are much less impressive than the typical yuppies of America where they originated. The European counterpart remains a pale shadow of the all-American original. e.g. The original of this painting is in Rome.The original of this painting is in Rome. I shall keep the original of this report. You can have a photocopy if you want.I shall keep the original of this report. You can have a photocopy if you want.

67 think big — have ambitious ideas e.g. He certainly thinks big, but rarely takes any action.He certainly thinks big, but rarely takes any action. Traditionally, one is expected to be modest rather than think big.Traditionally, one is expected to be modest rather than think big.

68 Guided Practice Vocabulary Cloze Translation Structure Writing The ABCs of the USA

69 Ex. III, p. 139 《读写教程 III 》 : Ex. III, p. 139 Exercises Vocabulary

70 1. Politicians are always promising to introduce __________ to raise salaries and lower taxes. Vocabulary 2. The new poetry collection was __________ from a wide variety of sources and includes poems from twelve countries and seven centuries. III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. legislation compiled compile ambition orderly confusion acquaintance supplement renownedimpressive assumption amuse legislation emigrate

71 3. Every culture is full of beliefs and __________ that most people never question until they come into contact with another culture. Vocabulary 4. Many people who __________ to America in hopes of becoming rich are surprised at how hard they have to work. III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. emigrate assumptions compile ambition orderly confusion acquaintance supplement renownedimpressive assumption amuse legislation emigrate

72 5. He has a wide circle of ______________ but very few close friends. Vocabulary 6. She's a __________ tennis player, but her real __________ is to become a writer. III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. acquaintances renowned compile ambition orderly confusion acquaintance supplement renownedimpressive assumption amuse legislation emigrate ambition

73 7. To avoid __________, you'd better start by explaining the whole idea from beginning to end in an __________ way. compile ambition orderly confusion acquaintance supplement renownedimpressive assumption amuse legislation emigrate Vocabulary 8. When you take a small child on a long trip, you need to bring lots of books and toys to keep him or her __________. III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. confusion amused orderly

74 9. Most visitors to Shanghai find it a very __________________ city. Vocabulary 10. They teach at night school to __________ their income, which otherwise wouldn't be sufficient to live on. III.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. impressive/amusing supplement compile ambition orderly confusion acquaintance supplement renownedimpressive assumption amuse legislation emigrate

75 《读写教程 III 》 :Ex. XI, p. 144 《读写教程 III 》 : Ex. XI, p. 144 Cloze

76 One of the most striking things about Americans is that they seem to expect everyone to like them wherever they go. Americans aren't of course the only people in the world who take __1__ that their cultural standards are generally admired—monoculturalism is typical __2__ every society in the world. But it isn't __3__ that Americans seem 1.A. advantage B. granted C.it as advantage D.it for granted 2.A.forB. of C.toD. 0 3.A.admiration B.admiring C.to be admired D.you to admire D B A Select the most appropriate word from the four choices given. The choice “0” means that no additional word is appropriate. Cloze

77 to expect—they seem to expect __4__. This phenomenon, which the rest of the world finds both amusing and 5, may be at least partly 6 to the American definition of friendliness. To Americans, friendliness means 7 informal and cheerful and open to other people, even before you know them __8__ to be sure you like them. And it's important to note that 9 real friendship may certainly arise 4.A.being liked B.to be alike C.to be liked D.you like 5. A. being frustrated B. frustrate C. frustrated D. frustrating 6.A.because B. being C.having beenD. to be 7.A. addictionB. enthusiasm C. enthusiastD. obsession 8.A. as wellB. enough well C. enoughD. well enough 9.A. although B. as though C. unless D. until D C B D A C Cloze

78 __10__ acting friendly in this way, Americans do not mistake __11__ being friends. This can, of course, cause 12 when Americans meet people from more reserved cultures. But if you consider __13__ American history, it's easier to see where this pattern of behavior comes from. In the pioneer days, if you acted too reserved and formal, no one __14__ any reason to help you if you got in 10.A. fromB. in C. ofD A. asB. in C. toD. for 12. A. confuse B. confused C. confusing D. confusion 13. A. aboutB. at C. ofD A. would give B. would have C. would have had D. would’ve D D B A D Cloze

79 trouble (__15__ there was plenty of in the pioneer days). Having a wide circle of friendly acquaintances was a key 16 survival, so “friendliness” became a glorified pattern of behavior that every generation of Americans is trained to _17__ in a high degree. They're so good at being friendly – and it works at home – so Americans' __18__ is that it will work everywhere. 15.A. and B. that C. whichD A. forB. of C. toD A. exhibit B. document C. profile D. supplement 18.A. ambition B. assumption C. confusion D. obsession C A B C Cloze

80 Translation  Ex. XII Ex. XII Ex. XII  Ex. XIII Ex. XIII Ex. XIII Translation — Chinese to English

81 Ex. XII, p. 145 《读写教程 III 》 : Ex. XII, p. 145 Translation — Chinese to English

82 America can be a strange experience for a foreigner. My wife and I arrived in the United States in January after seven years overseas — four in France, three in Poland. From the jumble of first impressions, we compiled an A-to-Z explanation of why America can be such a foreign country to those who arrive here from Europe. I should explain at the outset that I am from Britain, but my Florida-born wife Lisa is as American as apple pie. In our list, however, A doesn ’ t stand for apple pie. It stands for: Ambition. In the Old World, people are taught to hide it. Here it ’ s quite proper to announce that you ’ re after the boss ’ s job or want to make a million dollars by the age of 30. America can be a strange experience for a foreigner. My wife and I arrived in the United States in January after seven years overseas — four in France, three in Poland. From the jumble of first impressions, we compiled an A-to-Z explanation of why America can be such a foreign country to those who arrive here from Europe. 从杂乱的初步印象中 我们编了一套从 A 到 Z 的解释 I should explain at the outset that I am from Britain, but my Florida-born wife Lisa is as American as apple pie. In our list, however, A doesn ’ t stand for apple pie. It stands for: 莉萨是个地道的美国人 Ambition. In the Old World, people are taught to hide it. Here it ’ s quite proper to announce that you ’ re after the boss ’ s job or want to make a million dollars by the age of 30. 在这儿,你宣称要谋取上司的职位或者想在 30 岁 前赚到一百万美元也十分正当。 Translation — Chinese to English

83 Ex. XIII, p. 146 《读写教程 III 》 : Ex. XIII, p. 146 Translation — Chinese to English

84 To help foreign investors get a better understanding of Shanghai, they’ve compiled this little guide from the various sources they could find. 1. 为了帮助外国投资者更好地了解上海,他们根据能找到的 各种资料来源汇编了这本上海指南 1. 为了帮助外国投资者更好地了解上海,他们根据能找到的 各种资料来源汇编了这本上海指南。 get a better understanding of Shanghai the various sources they could find compile Translation — Chinese to English

85 He is the sort of person who prefers to keep his plans to himself until they’re realized. 2. 他是在计划实现之后才让大家知道的那种人。 keep his plans to himself until they’re realized He is the sort of person Translation — Chinese to English

86 I came to New York from far away to see him, only to find he had gone abroad two days before. 3. 我千里迢迢到纽约来看他,结果却发现他两天前出国了。 come to New York from far away only to find Translation — Chinese to English

87 4. 现在很难想象没有电、没有电视、没有电话,我们是如何 生存了如此之久的。 It is difficult to imagine now how we’ve survived for so long without electricity, television or telephone. it is difficult to imagine survive Translation — Chinese to English

88 5. 只要钱是老老实实赚来的,新政策鼓励人们变得富有。 The new policy encourages people to become wealthy if the money has been acquired honestly. acquired honestly encourage Translation — Chinese to English

89 6. 如果我负责这个项目,我会更好地利用现有的资金。 If I were in charge of the project, I’d make better use of the money that’s available. be in charge of make better use of the money that is available Translation — Chinese to English

90 He was refused an entry permit on the grounds that he was a dangerous person. 7. 他们拒绝给他进入这个国家的签证,理由是他是个危险分 子。 an entry permit on the grounds that Translation — Chinese to English

91 It didn’t take the teacher long to catch on that Tom always had an excuse for being late with the assignments. Translation — Chinese to English 8. 老师没有多久就发现, 汤姆总有迟交作业的借口。 it didn’t take sb. long to catch on an excuse for being late with the assignments

92 Structured Writing The main writing skill in text A is LISTING. The main writing skill in text A is LISTING. The author prefers an A-to-Z explanation arranged according to the sequence of alphabetical order. It is equally effective to use numerical order or apply phrases such as “one of the features” and “another feature”, as in the following example. Sample Essay Sample Essay Sample Essay Sample Essay Write your own Write your own Write your own Write your own Structured Writing

93 Shanghai is famous as a paradise for shopping. One of the features of Shanghai is the number of big stores. They are spacious, with many high stories, in which you can buy almost anything you want, from a box of matches to a suite of furniture. Most of them are very modern, equipped with speedy elevators and escalators, well-planned lighting, ventilation, and heating. You can spend hours wandering around one of these stores, leisurely inspecting the items for sale. If you stay in a store so long that you feel hungry, you need not leave the building, for almost all the big stores have cafes, snack bars or restaurants. Sample Essay Structured Writing

94 Another feature of Shanghai's shopping is the chain-store, in which prices are usually lower and a wider variety of items are offered –mainly foodstuffs, household items, clothing and stationery. The items are displayed on open counters. Most of the chain-stores operate on the “serve yourself” method: you go in, pick up a basket, walk round the shop and choose what you want. At the exit there is a checkout lane where you pay for everything at one time. Sample Essay Structured Writing

95 Now use the writing technique of LISTING to write a short composition of about 150 words. Here are some ideas you can choose from if you like. Write Your Own some pieces of advice for English language learning some differences between families in China and America some points that foreigners might feel confused about China some points I have learned from my foreign teacher An A-to-Z explanation of China Structured Writing

96 1.Review Text A 2.Do exercises: Cloze(Ex. XI, p. 144) Cloze(Ex. XI, p. 144) Translation ( Ex. XII& XIII, p. 146) Translation ( Ex. XII& XIII, p. 146) 3.Structured Writing(p. 148) AssignmentAssignment


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