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Improving Sentences PowerPoint, © May 2007 by Prestwick House, Inc. All rights reserved. ISBN 978-1-60843-746-7 Item #: 302472 By Sondra Abel PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Improving Sentences PowerPoint, © May 2007 by Prestwick House, Inc. All rights reserved. ISBN 978-1-60843-746-7 Item #: 302472 By Sondra Abel PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving Sentences PowerPoint, © May 2007 by Prestwick House, Inc. All rights reserved. ISBN Item #: By Sondra Abel PowerPoint ® for the Classroom Improving Sentences

2 Fragments

3 For a sentence to be complete, it must express a complete thought. It must have both a subject and a verb (an independent clause). I hate walnuts. My family lives by the beach. Traffic is horrible in the city. Have you thought about the project?

4 Fragments If a sentence does not contain a subject and a verb, it is called a fragment. Fragments are incomplete thoughts. The student. Merged onto the exit ramp. Every morning after breakfast. With food in his beard. These fragments leave the reader with questions such as What next?, So what?, etc.

5 Fragments The fragments could be combined to make a single sentence. Every morning after breakfast, the student merged onto the exit ramp with food in his beard. The fragments could also be used individually to make complete sentences. The student was excited about the field trip. The speeding car merged onto the exit ramp. Every morning after breakfast, we brush our teeth. The professor often wandered around the campus with food in his beard.

6 Fragments A fragment can also occur if a prepositional phrase is left standing alone. Under the table. With all my might. To the right. In New York City.

7 Fragments To make the prepositional phrase part of a complete sentence, add a subject and a verb. The food fell under the table. I tried with all my might to open the jar. The tiger moved to the right. Hotels in New York City are expensive.

8 Fragments A fragment can also occur if an adverb clause is left standing alone. An adverb clause looks like a sentence because it has a subject and a verb. However, if left alone and incomplete, it is a sentence fragment. Where she left them. If the dog isn’t walked regularly. When the doctor prepared for surgery. Although the representative ran a good campaign.

9 Fragments Adverb clauses are dependent clauses. Therefore, connect them to an independent clause to form a complete sentence. The books were where she left them. If the dog isn’t walked regularly, he will become fat. When the doctor prepared for surgery, she washed her hands and put on gloves. Although the representative ran a good campaign, she was not elected for a second term.

10 Fragments Another way that sentence fragments can occur is when verbal phrases are left by themselves. Prancing around the ring. Running across the grass. Excited by the speed of the horse’s gallop. Rustled in the wind.

11 Fragments These phrases don’t express complete thoughts unless they are joined to another phrase or clause. Prancing around the ring, the show horse entertained the audience. The horse seemed to truly enjoy running across the grass. Excited by the speed of the horse’s gallop, the rider threw his hands wildly into the air. The horse’s mane rustled in the wind.

12 Run-on Sentences

13 A run-on is created when multiple independent clauses appear in a sentence and no punctuation is used to separate them. To correct the run-on sentence, one of the following items can be used. semicolon period comma + a conjunction

14 Run-on Sentences After being injected with the chemical, the rodent ran wildly around its cage then it began biting other mice. In this run-on, we have two thoughts. Here are a few ways to clarify and correct the run-on. After being injected with the chemical, the rodent ran wildly around its cage; then it began biting other mice. After being injected with the chemical, the rodent ran wildly around its cage. Then it began biting other mice. After being injected with the chemical, the rodent ran wildly around its cage, and then it began biting other mice.

15 Run-on Sentences People came from far and wide to see Jackie’s abstract art exhibit she was disappointed that her fiancé wasn’t there. People came from far and wide to see Jackie’s abstract art exhibit; she was disappointed that her fiancé wasn’t there. People came from far and wide to see Jackie’s abstract art exhibit. She was disappointed that her fiancé wasn’t there. People came from far and wide to see Jackie’s abstract art exhibit, but she was disappointed that her fiancé wasn’t there.

16 Run-on Sentences The prairie was full of blue and purple flowers the petals blew in the wind like waves in the ocean. The prairie was full of blue and purple flowers; the petals blew in the wind like waves in the ocean. The prairie was full of blue and purple flowers. The petals blew in the wind like waves in the ocean. The prairie was full of blue and purple flowers, and the petals blew in the wind like waves in the ocean.

17 Run-on Sentences The man wandered aimlessly about the yard as if he had lost something important he hadn’t lost anything. The man wandered aimlessly about the yard as if he had lost something important; he hadn’t lost anything. The man wandered aimlessly about the yard as if he had lost something important. He hadn’t lost anything. The man wandered aimlessly about the yard as if he had lost something important, but he hadn’t lost anything.

18 Run-on Sentences The buzzards circled the dying animal until it took its last breath and collapsed onto the cold ground the birds swooped down and devoured the carcass in a frenzy. The buzzards circled the dying animal until it took its last breath and collapsed onto the cold ground; the birds swooped down and devoured the carcass in a frenzy. The buzzards circled the dying animal until it took its last breath and collapsed onto the cold ground. The birds swooped down and devoured the carcass in a frenzy. The buzzards circled the dying animal until it took its last breath and collapsed onto the cold ground, and the birds swooped down and devoured the carcass in a frenzy.

19 Combining Primer Sentences

20 If multiple short, independent sentences follow each other, the writing can sound choppy. Using many short, choppy sentences (called primer sentences) makes it difficult for readers to identify the main idea. Therefore, primer sentences should be combined. Last Saturday, I went to the movies. I saw Battle on the Home Front. It was the worst film I’ve ever seen. Its only focus seemed to be on blood and gore. They never even mentioned the reason for the battle. There are many ways to combine these sentences. One possible way is: Last Saturday, I saw Battle on the Home Front, which was the worst movie I’ve ever seen. The cause of the battle was never mentioned; instead, the movie focused on blood and gore.

21 Combining Primer Sentences I had a cavity. It caused a lot of pain. I went to the dentist. The doctor filled the cavity. He gave me a shot of Novocain. It made my mouth numb. I had a cavity that caused a lot of pain. I went to the dentist, and the doctor filled it. He gave me a shot of Novocain, and it made my mouth numb. I had a cavity. Because it caused a lot of pain, I went to the dentist and had it filled. The doctor gave me a shot of Novocain, which made my mouth numb. I had a cavity, which was causing a lot of pain, so I went to the dentist. Before she filled the cavity, she gave me a shot of Novocain, which made my mouth numb.

22 Combining Primer Sentences Butterflies begin as caterpillars. The caterpillars eat a lot of plants to get fat. They build a cocoon. Caterpillars stay in the cocoon for days. They grow wings. They leave the cocoon. They fly away. Butterflies begin as caterpillars. After eating a lot of plants to get fat, they build a cocoon and stay in it for days. After they grow wings, they leave the cocoon and fly away. Butterflies begin as caterpillars, which eat a lot of plants to get fat. They build a cocoon and stay in it for days. Then, they grow wings and fly away from the cocoon. Butterflies begin as caterpillars that eat a lot of plants to get fat. They build a cocoon, stay in it for days, grow wings, leave the cocoon, and fly away.

23 Combining Primer Sentences I like Disney World. There are many fun rides. They have a roller coaster. It made my Aunt Maggie throw up. She still likes Disney World, though. I like Disney World because there are many fun rides. They have a roller coaster, which made my Aunt Maggie throw up. However, she still likes Disney World. I like Disney World because there are many fun rides, including a roller coaster. Although it made my Aunt Maggie throw up, she still likes the amusement park. I like Disney World. There are many fun rides, including a roller coaster that made my Aunt Maggie throw up. She still likes Disney World, though.

24 Combining Primer Sentences I didn’t want to do my math homework. It was hard. I didn’t understand it. No matter how hard I tried, I would never pass the class. I didn’t want to do my math homework because it was hard, and I didn’t understand it. No matter how hard I tried, I would never pass the class. I didn’t want to do my math homework because it was hard, and I didn’t understand it, and no matter how hard I tried, I would never pass the class. I didn’t want to do my math homework because it was hard, and I didn’t understand it; no matter how hard I tried, I would never pass the class.

25 Dangling Modifiers

26 A modifier is said to “dangle” when there is no word in the sentence for it to modify. These modifiers are often dependent clauses that have no subject. Chewing madly, the food tasted delicious. Who is chewing the food? Correction: Chewing madly, I noticed that the food tasted delicious.

27 Dangling Modifiers It sounds as if the topic is debating itself. Debating for over an hour, the topic was almost resolved. Correction: We debated the topic for over an hour, and it was almost resolved. To register for the class, an ID and a credit card are necessary. An ID and a credit card cannot register for class. Correction: To register for the class, it is necessary for a person to have an ID and a credit card.

28 Misplaced Modifiers

29 A modifier is said to be “misplaced” when the wrong word is modified. In this case, all of the information is present, but the words are not in the proper order. I saw a very tall man walking down the road in my tuxedo. Correction: Walking down the road in my tuxedo, I saw a very tall man.

30 Misplaced Modifiers 1. I bought a CD at the mall that was cracked and broken. 1. I bought a CD that was cracked and broken at the mall. 2. The clown entertained the child who was making balloon animals. 2. The clown who was making balloon animals entertained the child. 3. Caitlin poured the coffee into the mug, which was strong and black. 3. Caitlin poured the coffee, which was strong and black, into the mug. 4. The kite flew high in the sky with a long, blue tail behind it. 4. The kite with a long, blue tail behind it flew high in the sky.

31 Relative Clauses

32 Relative Clauses, also called Adjective Clauses, modify nouns or pronouns. Relative Clauses always begin with one of these pronouns: who, whom, whose, whoever, whomever, that, or which. The boy who was in the play is my cousin. (Which boy?) Norm, who arrived late, missed the first touchdown. (Why did he miss it?) The lion that had been at the zoo for years escaped. (What lion?)

33 Relative Clauses The final 12th grade English exam, which took over three hours, was too difficult for me. Please give whoever attends the assembly some extra credit. Why was it so hard? Who will get the extra credit? The person whose books these are should claim them immediately. Which person needs to claim the books?

34 Relative Clauses Relative Clauses are classified by how they work in sentences. There are two types: nonrestrictive clauses (clauses that are not essential to the meaning of the sentence) and restrictive clauses (clauses that are essential to the meaning of the sentence). The gray horse, which is faster than my last one, runs the track in record time. The horse that won last race of the day had already won two earlier races. Many immigrants, who came from all over the world, are now U.S. citizens. Some immigrants who arrived in the U. S. penniless made their fortunes in the big cities.

35 Relative Clauses Members of the debate team, who enjoy arguing, practice on Wednesdays. Everyone who wants to enjoy arguing should try out for the debate team on Wednesday. Javier’s brother, whose name is Eduardo, recently became a doctor. One of Javier’s three brothers who recently became a doctor opened an office in New York.

36 Relative Clauses Nonrestrictive clauses are enclosed in commas because they can be removed from the sentence without changing its basic meaning. Maria’s parents, who are both over 65, had to retake their driver’s exam. (The important fact is that they needed to retake the exam, not that they are past 65; therefore, commas are necessary.) Franklin, who enjoys the outdoors, loves rock climbing. (You don’t need to know that he likes the outdoors to understand the important meaning of the sentence: Franklin loves rock climbing.)

37 Relative Clauses Family farming, which is rapidly disappearing, once produced almost all America’s food. (It is interesting that family farms are disappearing, but the important meaning in the sentence is that they used to supply almost all the food in the USA.) The three Relative Clauses are nonrestrictive. They are not necessary to the full meaning of the sentence, and they need commas around them.

38 Relative Clauses Restrictive Clauses do not take commas around them because the words are essential to get the full meaning of the sentence. The calendars that are printed nowadays have various themes to them. (The idea that modern calendars contain themes is essential to the meaning of the sentence.) Some women who lived in the 1600s were burned as witches. (Taking the restrictive clause out changes the sentence to mean that women in general were burned as witches, but the intent of the sentence is to explain that women in the 1600s were burned.)

39 Relative Clauses Everyone who has completed the project needs to turn in the results. (“Everyone” cannot turn in the results; only the people who worked on the project can.) Some people who catch a cold will pass it on to family members. (If you take the clause out, the sentence makes absolutely no sense.) All four of these clauses contain information that is necessary for the sentence to make sense or to be complete. Therefore, they are restrictive and must not have commas around them.

40 Parallelism

41 Parallel thoughts must be expressed in parallel grammatical form. In a list or series, each element must be in the same form. For example, if one item is in past tense, all should be in past tense. Not parallel: We drove to the store, were buying groceries, and made dinner. Corrected: We drove to the store, bought groceries, and made dinner. Not parallel: The star player was running across the court, stole the ball, and making a basket. Corrected: The star player ran across the court, stole the ball, and made a basket.

42 Parallelism Not parallel: Laura was smart, played sports, and wanted to be an actor. Corrected: Laura was smart, athletic, and talented. Not parallel: Children make crafts, enjoy playing games, and need to learn social skills at daycare. Corrected (A): Children make crafts, play games, and learn social skills at daycare. Corrected (B): Children enjoy making crafts, playing games, and learning social skills at daycare. Corrected (C): Children make crafts and play games at daycare, but they also need to learn social skills.

43 Additional Exercises

44 Sentence Fragments Exercises

45 Additional Exercises Sentence Fragments Exercises Correct the sentence fragment. Remember, every sentence must contain at least one independent clause (have a subject and a verb) and end with a punctuation mark (period, question mark, or exclamation point) to be complete. 1. I expected to find the kitchen neat and orderly, but it was a mess. With food on the floor and dishes in the sink. Possible Answer: I expected to find the kitchen neat and orderly, but it was a mess. Food was on the floor, and dishes were in the sink. 2. Looking at all the money in the mint. Possible Answer: I thought of all the wonderful things I could buy while looking at all the money in the mint.

46 Additional Exercises 3. At the park, the boys played fetch with the puppy. While their parents had a picnic. Possible Answer: While their parents had a picnic at the park, the boys played fetch with the puppy. 4. At the exact moment I called her. Possible Answer: At the exact moment I called her, the doorbell rang. 5. The university offers numerous degree programs. Including engineering, architecture, art, and biology. Possible Answer: The university offers numerous degree programs, including engineering, architecture, art, and biology.

47 Additional Exercises 6. The current bill proposal is incomplete as it stands. Which is why Senator Rodgers has proposed several amendments. Possible Answer: (A) The current bill proposal is incomplete as it stands, which is why Senator Rodgers has proposed several amendments. Possible Answer: (B) Because the current bill proposal is incomplete as it stands, Senator Rodgers has proposed several amendments. 7. The quarterback threw a temper tantrum and left the field. Leaving his teammates during a critical period in the game. Possible Answer: The quarterback threw a temper tantrum and left the field, leaving his teammates during a critical period in the game.

48 Additional Exercises 8. All over the mountains, the snow. Possible Answer: The snow stretched all over the mountains, creating what looked like a white blanket with ripples.

49 Run-on Sentences Exercises

50 Additional Exercises Run-on Sentences Exercises Correct the run-on sentences by using a period, semicolon, or conjunction. Be sure to include all necessary punctuation in the revision. 1. To make fried chicken you have to cover the meat in flour, dip it in egg, then coat it in flour again put it into hot oil it cook until it is brown with no pink inside. Possible Answer: To make fried chicken, you have to cover the meat in flour, dip it in egg, and then coat it in flour again. Put it into hot oil and cook it until it is brown with no pink inside. 2. Jada is my favorite stylist she follows my instructions my hair always comes out looking fabulous. Possible Answer: Jada is my favorite stylist; she follows my instructions. My hair always comes out looking fabulous.

51 Additional Exercises 3. While we were at the zoo my brother wanted to feed peanuts to the elephant the sign said not to feed the animals it could harm them. Possible Answer: While we were at the zoo, my brother wanted to feed peanuts to the elephant, but the sign said not to feed the animals because it could harm them. 4. Liza worked for seventeen hours, ran a mile, helped a friend with a project for work before she passed out she slept well into the afternoon the following day. Possible Answer: Liza worked for seventeen hours, ran a mile, and helped a friend with a project for work before she passed out. She slept well into the afternoon the following day.

52 Additional Exercises 5. I like because it lets me communicate with people all over the country but it is less personal and more removed because you can’t see people’s faces or hear their voices like you do in regular conversation don’t you agree. Possible Answer: (A) I like because it lets me communicate with people all over the country, but it is less personal and more removed because you can’t see peoples’ faces or hear their voices like you do in regular conversation. Don’t you agree? Possible Answer: (B) I like because it lets me communicate with people all over the country. However, because you can’t see people’s faces or hear their voices like you do in regular conversation, is less personal and more removed. Don’t you agree?

53 Combining Primer Sentences Exercises

54 Additional Exercises Combining Primer Sentences Exercises Combine the primer sentences to create longer sentences. Be sure to add transitions when necessary. There are many possible ways to fixthese choppy sentences. 1. I love the new restaurant that opened in town. It’s called Mama’s Kitchen. They make great chicken salad. It has grapes and celery in it. Possible Answer: I love the new restaurant, Mama’s Kitchen, that opened in town. Their chicken salad, which has grapes and celery in it, is great. 2. Jen fell off her bike. She was riding in the neighborhood. Many kids saw it happen. A couple kids laughed. Her friend Ben helped her up. He also got her a Band-Aid. Possible Answer: Jen fell of her bike while she was riding in the neighborhood. A few kids saw it, and they laughed. Her friend Ben, however, helped her up and got her a Band-Aid.

55 Additional Exercises Possible Answer: Rafael wanted to buy a new car because his old one was starting to fall apart. It had some rust on it, and it needed a new engine. He thought a convertible would be a good replacement. Although the dealership in town had one on sale, Rafael hoped he could haggle and get a better price. 3. Rafael wanted to buy a new car. His old one was starting to fall apart. It had some rust on it. It needed a new engine also. He thought a convertible would be a good replacement. The dealership in town had one on sale. Rafael hoped he could haggle and get a better price. 4. The King was destroying the kingdom. Peasants were resorting to eating rats. Businesses were closing. Children were starving. Even members of the Royal Court were going hungry. Possible Answer: The King was destroying the kingdom—peasants were resorting to eating rats, businesses were closing, and children were starving. Even members of the Royal Court were going hungry.

56 Additional Exercises 5. Watching violence on television is bad for children. Studies show it can make them aggressive. Aggression can make children act violently toward others. Possible Answer: Watching violence on television is bad for children because studies show it can make them aggressive, which can make them act violently toward others.

57 Modifiers Exercises

58 Additional Exercises Modifiers Exercises Decide whether the sentence contains a dangling modifier or a misplaced modifier. Then, correct the dangling modifier by making sure that there is a clear subject to the sentence. Correct the misplaced modifier by moving the phrases closer to the words they should modify. Many possible answers exist. 1. Always leaving food and dishes in the sink, the cockroaches started invading the kitchen. Possible Answer: Since the homeowners are always leaving food and dishes in the sink, the cockroaches have started invading the kitchen.

59 Additional Exercises 2. The old man blew a bubble with pink gum that was the size of his head. Possible Answer: (A) With pink gum, the old man blew a bubble that was the size of his head. Possible Answer: (B) The old man blew a pink bubble that was the size of his head. 3. To win the game, another goal needs to be made. Possible Answer: To win the game, the team needs to score another goal. 4. The dancer that looked like a bird leaped across stage in a brightly colored outfit. Possible Answer: The dancer, leaping across the stage in the brightly colored outfit, looked like a bird.

60 Additional Exercises 5. Excited about the upcoming vacation, the ticket was already purchased. Possible Answer: Excited about the upcoming vacation, she had already purchased the ticket. 6. The injured fish rested at the bottom of the tank with a hole in its side gasping for air. Possible Answer: The injured fish with a hole in its side rested at the bottom of the tank, gasping for air. 7. To climb the mountain without starving, your backpack must be full of food and water. Possible Answer: To climb the mountain without starving, you should have a backpack full of food and water.

61 Additional Exercises Possible Answer: Hunting for food, the lion ran swiftly across the field that was burned in the wildfire. 8. The lion ran swiftly across the field that was burned in the wildfire hunting for food.

62 Relative Clauses Exercises

63 Additional Exercises Relative Clauses Exercises Identify the Relative Clauses in the following sentences by underlining them. Then, decide if they are restrictive or nonrestrictive and add commas around the clauses if necessary. Some sentences may contain more than one Relative Clause. All punctuation in the sentences is correct as it is. You do not need to change any commas that are present in the sentences. 1. North America which was inhabited only sparsely for thousands of years is now severely overcrowded in certain areas. Restrictive: North America, which was inhabited only sparsely for thousands of years, is now severely overcrowded in certain areas.

64 Additional Exercises 2. The new flow of money into the RQM Charity from everyone who recognized its financial difficulty has allowed the organization to continue to serve the needy. Nonrestrictive: The new flow of money into the RQM Charity from everyone who recognized its financial difficulty has allowed the organization to continue to serve the needy. Nonrestrictive; Restrictive: The new car that I’m dying to buy has a large sunroof, which is a very expensive option. 3. The new car that I’m dying to buy has a large sunroof which is a very expensive option. 4. Politicians who make promises should keep them. Nonrestrictive: Politicians who make promises should keep them.

65 Additional Exercises 5. The magician who was working in a Broadway show that starred only singers and dancers met a promoter who promised to double the salary that she had been making. Nonrestrictive: The magician who was working in a Broadway show that starred singers and dancers met a promoter who promised to double the salary that she had been making. 6. The burglar robbed houses that were empty. Nonrestrictive: The burglar robbed houses that were empty. 7. The plant that I told you about can be poisonous to any pets that might eat it. Nonrestrictive: The plant that I told you about can be poisonous to any pets that might eat it.

66 Additional Exercises 8. Governor Morse whose term ends next year has decided not to run for reelection. 9. Our classes which included physics and advanced calculus allowed little time for extracurricular activities. Restrictive: Governor Morse, whose term ends next year, has decided not to run for reelection. Restrictive: Our classes, which included physics and advanced calculus, allowed little time for extracurricular activities. 10. The book that you borrowed from me last semester and never returned is now long overdue which means I cannot use the library anymore. Nonrestrictive; Restrictive: The book that you borrowed from me last semester and never returned is now long overdue, which means I cannot use the library anymore.

67 Parallelism Exercises

68 Additional Exercises Parallelism Exercises Make the following sentences parallel. 1. The mayor cleaned up the city by increasing the police force, building more homeless shelters, and he also gave more funding to public schools. Possible Answer: The mayor cleaned up the city by increasing the police force, building more homeless shelters, and giving more funding to public schools. 2. Native Americans hunted buffalo for its meat and building shelters from its hides. Possible Answer: Native Americans hunted buffalo for its meat and built shelters from its hides.

69 Additional Exercises 3. When the alarm sounds, the crowd lined up, and slowly walks outside onto the field to wait further instruction. Possible Answer: When the alarm sounded, the crowd lined up, slowly walked outside onto the field, and waited for further instruction. 4. The choir needed to have more rehearsals before the contest because several singers were out of tune, messing up the words, and made weird facial expressions while singing. Possible Answer: The choir needed to have more rehearsals before the contest because several singers sang out of tune, messed up the words, and made weird facial expressions while singing. 5. We enjoy baseball, running track, and tossing Frisbees. Possible Answer: We enjoy playing baseball, running track, and tossing Frisbees.

70 Repeated Exercises Note: These are blank versions of previous exercises that have been repeated for your convenience. They can be printed out and used as worksheets or mini-quizzes.

71 Sentence Fragments Exercises

72 Additional Exercises Sentence Fragments Exercises Correct the sentence fragment. Remember, every sentence must contain at least one independent clause (have a subject and a verb) and end with a punctuation mark (period, question mark, or exclamation point) to be complete. 1. I expected to find the kitchen neat and orderly, but it was a mess. With food on the floor and dishes in the sink. Possible Answer: I expected to find the kitchen neat and orderly, but it was a mess. Food was on the floor, and dishes were in the sink. 2. Looking at all the money in the mint. Possible Answer: I thought of all the wonderful things I could buy while looking at all the money in the mint.

73 Additional Exercises 3. At the park, the boys played fetch with the puppy. While their parents had a picnic. Possible Answer: While their parents had a picnic at the park, the boys played fetch with the puppy. 4. At the exact moment I called her. Possible Answer: At the exact moment I called her, the doorbell rang. 5. The university offers numerous degree programs. Including engineering, architecture, art, and biology. Possible Answer: The university offers numerous degree programs, including engineering, architecture, art, and biology.

74 Additional Exercises 6. The current bill proposal is incomplete as it stands. Which is why Senator Rodgers has proposed several amendments. Possible Answer: (A) The current bill proposal is incomplete as it stands, which is why Senator Rodgers has proposed several amendments. Possible Answer: (B) Because the current bill proposal is incomplete as it stands, Senator Rodgers has proposed several amendments. 7. The quarterback threw a temper tantrum and left the field. Leaving his teammates during a critical period in the game. Possible Answer: The quarterback threw a temper tantrum and left the field, leaving his teammates during a critical period in the game.

75 Additional Exercises 8. All over the mountains, the snow. Possible Answer: The snow stretched all over the mountains, creating what looked like a white blanket with ripples.

76 Run-on Sentences Exercises

77 Additional Exercises Run-on Sentences Exercises Correct the run-on sentences by using a period, semicolon, or conjunction. Be sure to include all necessary punctuation in the revision. 1. To make fried chicken you have to cover the meat in flour, dip it in egg, then coat it in flour again put it into hot oil it cook until it is brown with no pink inside. Possible Answer: To make fried chicken, you have to cover the meat in flour, dip it in egg, and then coat it in flour again. Put it into hot oil and cook it until it is brown with no pink inside. 2. Jada is my favorite stylist she follows my instructions my hair always comes out looking fabulous. Possible Answer: Jada is my favorite stylist; she follows my instructions. My hair always comes out looking fabulous.

78 Additional Exercises 3. While we were at the zoo my brother wanted to feed peanuts to the elephant the sign said not to feed the animals it could harm them. Possible Answer: While we were at the zoo, my brother wanted to feed peanuts to the elephant, but the sign said not to feed the animals because it could harm them. 4. Liza worked for seventeen hours, ran a mile, helped a friend with a project for work before she passed out she slept well into the afternoon the following day. Possible Answer: Liza worked for seventeen hours, ran a mile, and helped a friend with a project for work before she passed out. She slept well into the afternoon the following day.

79 Additional Exercises 5. I like because it lets me communicate with people all over the country but it is less personal and more removed because you can’t see people’s faces or hear their voices like you do in regular conversation don’t you agree. Possible Answer: (A) I like because it lets me communicate with people all over the country, but it is less personal and more removed because you can’t see peoples’ faces or hear their voices like you do in regular conversation. Don’t you agree? Possible Answer: (B) I like because it lets me communicate with people all over the country. However, because you can’t see people’s faces or hear their voices like you do in regular conversation, is less personal and more removed. Don’t you agree?

80 Combining Primer Sentences Exercises

81 Additional Exercises Combining Primer Sentences Exercises Combine the primer sentences to create longer sentences. Be sure to add transitions when necessary. There are many possible ways to fixthese choppy sentences. 1. I love the new restaurant that opened in town. It’s called Mama’s Kitchen. They make great chicken salad. It has grapes and celery in it. Possible Answer: I love the new restaurant, Mama’s Kitchen, that opened in town. Their chicken salad, which has grapes and celery in it, is great. 2. Jen fell off her bike. She was riding in the neighborhood. Many kids saw it happen. A couple kids laughed. Her friend Ben helped her up. He also got her a Band-Aid. Possible Answer: Jen fell of her bike while she was riding in the neighborhood. A few kids saw it, and they laughed. Her friend Ben, however, helped her up and got her a Band-Aid.

82 Additional Exercises Possible Answer: Rafael wanted to buy a new car because his old one was starting to fall apart. It had some rust on it, and it needed a new engine. He thought a convertible would be a good replacement. Although the dealership in town had one on sale, Rafael hoped he could haggle and get a better price. 3. Rafael wanted to buy a new car. His old one was starting to fall apart. It had some rust on it. It needed a new engine also. He thought a convertible would be a good replacement. The dealership in town had one on sale. Rafael hoped he could haggle and get a better price. 4. The King was destroying the kingdom. Peasants were resorting to eating rats. Businesses were closing. Children were starving. Even members of the Royal Court were going hungry. Possible Answer: The King was destroying the kingdom—peasants were resorting to eating rats, businesses were closing, and children were starving. Even members of the Royal Court were going hungry.

83 Additional Exercises 5. Watching violence on television is bad for children. Studies show it can make them aggressive. Aggression can make children act violently toward others. Possible Answer: Watching violence on television is bad for children because studies show it can make them aggressive, which can make them act violently toward others.

84 Modifiers Exercises

85 Additional Exercises Modifiers Exercises Decide whether the sentence contains a dangling modifier or a misplaced modifier. Then, correct the dangling modifier by making sure that there is a clear subject to the sentence. Correct the misplaced modifier by moving the phrases closer to the words they should modify. Many possible answers exist. 1. Always leaving food and dishes in the sink, the cockroaches started invading the kitchen. Possible Answer: Since the homeowners are always leaving food and dishes in the sink, the cockroaches have started invading the kitchen.

86 Additional Exercises 2. The old man blew a bubble with pink gum that was the size of his head. Possible Answer: (A) With pink gum, the old man blew a bubble that was the size of his head. Possible Answer: (B) The old man blew a pink bubble that was the size of his head. 3. To win the game, another goal needs to be made. Possible Answer: To win the game, the team needs to score another goal. 4. The dancer that looked like a bird leaped across stage in a brightly colored outfit. Possible Answer: The dancer, leaping across the stage in the brightly colored outfit, looked like a bird.

87 Additional Exercises 5. Excited about the upcoming vacation, the ticket was already purchased. Possible Answer: Excited about the upcoming vacation, she had already purchased the ticket. 6. The injured fish rested at the bottom of the tank with a hole in its side gasping for air. Possible Answer: The injured fish with a hole in its side rested at the bottom of the tank, gasping for air. 7. To climb the mountain without starving, your backpack must be full of food and water. Possible Answer: To climb the mountain without starving, you should have a backpack full of food and water.

88 Additional Exercises Possible Answer: Hunting for food, the lion ran swiftly across the field that was burned in the wildfire. 8. The lion ran swiftly across the field that was burned in the wildfire hunting for food.

89 Relative Clauses Exercises

90 Additional Exercises Relative Clauses Exercises Identify the Relative Clauses in the following sentences by underlining them. Then, decide if they are restrictive or nonrestrictive and add commas around the clauses if necessary. Some sentences may contain more than one Relative Clause. All punctuation in the sentences is correct as it is. You do not need to change any commas that are present in the sentences. 1. North America which was inhabited only sparsely for thousands of years is now severely overcrowded in certain areas. Restrictive: North America, which was inhabited only sparsely for thousands of years, is now severely overcrowded in certain areas.

91 Additional Exercises 2. The new flow of money into the RQM Charity from everyone who recognized its financial difficulty has allowed the organization to continue to serve the needy. Nonrestrictive: The new flow of money into the RQM Charity from everyone who recognized its financial difficulty has allowed the organization to continue to serve the needy. Nonrestrictive; Restrictive: The new car that I’m dying to buy has a large sunroof, which is a very expensive option. 3. The new car that I’m dying to buy has a large sunroof which is a very expensive option. 4. Politicians who make promises should keep them. Nonrestrictive: Politicians who make promises should keep them.

92 Additional Exercises 5. The magician who was working in a Broadway show that starred only singers and dancers met a promoter who promised to double the salary that she had been making. Nonrestrictive: The magician who was working in a Broadway show that starred singers and dancers met a promoter who promised to double the salary that she had been making. 6. The burglar robbed houses that were empty. Nonrestrictive: The burglar robbed houses that were empty. 7. The plant that I told you about can be poisonous to any pets that might eat it. Nonrestrictive: The plant that I told you about can be poisonous to any pets that might eat it.

93 Additional Exercises 8. Governor Morse whose term ends next year has decided not to run for reelection. 9. Our classes which included physics and advanced calculus allowed little time for extracurricular activities. Restrictive: Governor Morse, whose term ends next year, has decided not to run for reelection. Restrictive: Our classes, which included physics and advanced calculus, allowed little time for extracurricular activities. 10. The book that you borrowed from me last semester and never returned is now long overdue which means I cannot use the library anymore. Nonrestrictive; Restrictive: The book that you borrowed from me last semester and never returned is now long overdue, which means I cannot use the library anymore.

94 Parallelism Exercises

95 Additional Exercises Parallelism Exercises Make the following sentences parallel. 1. The mayor cleaned up the city by increasing the police force, building more homeless shelters, and he also gave more funding to public schools. Possible Answer: The mayor cleaned up the city by increasing the police force, building more homeless shelters, and giving more funding to public schools. 2. Native Americans hunted buffalo for its meat and building shelters from its hides. Possible Answer: Native Americans hunted buffalo for its meat and built shelters from its hides.

96 Additional Exercises 3. When the alarm sounds, the crowd lined up, and slowly walks outside onto the field to wait further instruction. Possible Answer: When the alarm sounded, the crowd lined up, slowly walked outside onto the field, and waited for further instruction. 4. The choir needed to have more rehearsals before the contest because several singers were out of tune, messing up the words, and made weird facial expressions while singing. Possible Answer: The choir needed to have more rehearsals before the contest because several singers sang out of tune, messed up the words, and made weird facial expressions while singing. 5. We enjoy baseball, running track, and tossing Frisbees. Possible Answer: We enjoy playing baseball, running track, and tossing Frisbees.


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