Presentation on theme: "Ch. 18 “America Claims an Empire” 1880 - 1914 “Becoming a World Power” OVERSEAS EXPANSION."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 18 “America Claims an Empire” 1880 - 1914 “Becoming a World Power” OVERSEAS EXPANSION
American Foreign Policy DevelopsAmerican Foreign Policy Develops ISOLATIONISMISOLATIONISM –Monroe Doctrine ExpansionismExpansionism –Manifest Destiny –ONLY on our Continent ImperialismImperialism NEW TRADE NEW MARKETS –Exercise economic & political influence / control over developing countries to establish NEW TRADE and NEW MARKETS America’s Foreign Policy Slowly Develops Washington’s Foreign Policy NEUTRALITY * NOT join an alliance with any foreign country, so as to NOT get pulled into a war we couldn’t afford to join
Expanding American Influence – the practice of extending political and economic influence or control over another country.Imperialism – the practice of extending political and economic influence or control over another country. The search for raw materials and new markets in countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa will result in competition between emerging Industrial countries, driving this Age of Imperialism. They competed for economic power and influence in areas across the world – controlling trade within these areas or “spheres of influence”.
America Ready to Expand Growth of ImperialismGrowth of Imperialism –Global Competition for Resources/Markets Alaska (Seward’s Folly) $7.2 millionAlaska (Seward’s Folly) $7.2 million Needs for Expansion (Growth = Jobs) ($$ Investment in Latin Am.) Banana RepublicsNeeds for Expansion (Growth = Jobs) ($$ Investment in Latin Am.) Banana Republics Admiral Mahan calls for “Navy Power”Admiral Mahan calls for “Navy Power” 1-Strong Navy1-Strong Navy 2-Navy Bases around the World (refuel)2-Navy Bases around the World (refuel) 3-Canal between Atlantic & Pacific3-Canal between Atlantic & Pacific Josiah Strong “Sense of Mission”Josiah Strong “Sense of Mission” Resources + Products + New Markets = ECONOMIC GROWTH (Jobs, Prosperity, Future Economic Growth)
*JAPAN – Open Trade Treaty – Commander Matthew Perry *Hawaii – 1887 Pearl Harbor Queen Liliukalani -Sugar Cane Planters pushed for U.S. Annexation – Dole gov’t *Cleveland – NO *McKinley – YES (Aug. 12,1898 - Hawaii Territory) - 1959 became the 50th State *Midway Island *Guam
The Spanish-American War served as a Turning Point in the Foreign Policy of the United States. In entering the current world of Foreign Competition and Imperialism, America established itself as an emerging International Economic and Political Power.
Spanish American War An uprising occurred against the Spanish-ruled Cuba in 1895. Interest in American intervention was bolstered by the two things. 1) Monetary Investment Banana Republics Yellow Journalism sensationalized articles1) Monetary Investment by American Businesses in the “Banana Republics” in Latin America and the 2) “Yellow Journalism” sensationalized articles in Pulitzer and Hearst newspapers, which will incite public opinion and bolster newspaper sales.
Backyard RebellionsBackyard Rebellions –American Support / Newspaper stories Cuban Rebellion v. Spanish ControlCuban Rebellion v. Spanish Control –Jose’ Marti Philippines RebellionPhilippines Rebellion –Emilio Aquinaldo Yellow Journalism - Competition Newspaper War( Hearst - Pulitzer )“ Yellow Journalism - Competition ” Newspaper War ( Hearst - Pulitzer ) William Randolph Hearst “quote” “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the War”William Randolph Hearst “quote” “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the War”
Spanish American War In 1898, the USS Maine, stationed in Cuba, inexplicably blew up – killing 266 sailors. War will erupt within two months. Pro-war legislators saw a free Cuba as an tremendous opportunity for economic development.
Spanish American War The first shots of the Spanish-American war occurred in far-off Spanish-ruled Philippines. There the U.S. defeated the Spanish navy and took over the city of Manila. Filipino rebels seized the island of Luzon. The Americans captured the city of Manila with rebel help. During the “splendid little war”, future president Theodore Roosevelt led his cavalry unit, the Rough Riders, at the battle of San Juan. In 1901, Cuba was granted independence by United States, under the Platt Amendment. The Philippines will be a U.S. territory, following a failed revolt by the rebels, but will achieve complete independence in 1946, and Puerto Rico will be established as an American Commonwealth.
U. S. Goes to War w/ Spain U. S. Goes to War w/ Spain 1. de Lome letter1. de Lome letter 2. U.S.S. Maine explodes2. U.S.S. Maine explodes April 20, 1898 U.S. declares War vs. SpainApril 20, 1898 U.S. declares War vs. Spain Admiral Dewey takes Manilla (Roosevelt)Admiral Dewey takes Manilla (Roosevelt) U.S. invades Cuba - 17,000 troopsU.S. invades Cuba - 17,000 troops T. Roosevelt's Rough RidersT. Roosevelt's Rough Riders –Famous attack at San Juan Hill (Kettle Hill) GOAL - U.S. gain “Spheres of Influence” in Central and South AmericaGOAL - U.S. gain “Spheres of Influence” in Central and South America
Results of the WAR: U.S. Gains/Spreads “Spheres of Influence”U.S. Gains/Spreads “Spheres of Influence” Territories/ Protectorate / CommonwealthTerritories/ Protectorate / Commonwealth Cuba (Protectorate) - Platt AmendmentCuba (Protectorate) - Platt Amendment Puerto Rico (Commonwealth )Puerto Rico (Commonwealth ) U.S. Annexes Philippines TerritoryU.S. Annexes Philippines Territory –Territory ($20 million given to Spain) –Philippines REBELS (Anti-Imperialism in US) U.S. spend 100’s of Millions $$$ building: Roads, Hospitals, Schools, Water, Power throughout Cuba, PR and PhilippinesU.S. spend 100’s of Millions $$$ building: Roads, Hospitals, Schools, Water, Power throughout Cuba, PR and Philippines
U.S. Becoming a World Power CHINA France, Germany,England,Japan,Russia Spheres of Influence - Extra-territorialityCHINA -Foreign Imperialism France, Germany,England,Japan,Russia Spheres of Influence - Extra-territoriality 3 Main Beliefs of Economic Growth3 Main Beliefs of Economic Growth 1) Growth Depends on Exports1) Growth Depends on Exports 2) Right to Intervene to keeps Markets Open2) Right to Intervene to keeps Markets Open 3) Closing of area to U.S. Products, Citizens and Ideas threatened U.S. survival3) Closing of area to U.S. Products, Citizens and Ideas threatened U.S. survival
U.S. Becomes a World Power Boxer Rebellion – Chinese IndependenceBoxer Rebellion – Chinese Independence –NEW Commercial Treaties John Hay “ Open Door Trade Policy ” -opened trade with China for the U.S.John Hay “ Open Door Trade Policy ” -opened trade with China for the U.S. (U.S. Influence in Region Growing)(U.S. Influence in Region Growing) Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 (Korea) T. Roosevelt mediates Treaty of PortsmouthRusso-Japanese War 1904-1905 (Korea) T. Roosevelt mediates Treaty of Portsmouth Nobel Peace PrizeNobel Peace Prize –Teddy Roosevelt (1 st American to receive award)
From 1881 to 1887, France attempted to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. In 1903, the U.S. took over the project and signed a treaty granting permanent lease over a 10-mile wide swathe across Panama for $10 million and annual rent of $250,000. Over 40,000 worked on the canal, which will open Aug. 15,1914 – reducing trip times by 8,000 miles.
The PANAMA CANAL Panama Revolts- ColumbiaPanama Revolts- Columbia –U.S. Support Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty allowed the U.S. to build the Panama Canal and provided for perpetual control of a zone five-miles wide on either side of the canal.Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty allowed the U.S. to build the Panama Canal and provided for perpetual control of a zone five-miles wide on either side of the canal.
Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy Corollary to the Monroe DoctrineThe building of the canal was part of a foreign policy whose intent was to extend American influence in the Western Hemisphere. In 1904, Roosevelt issued his Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine – establishing the U.S. as the policing power of the Western Hemisphere. He and his advisors believed the U.S. should intervene in order to stabilize the political and economic affairs of these smaller countries. He especially wanted to keep European countries from interfering in the region.
The Monroe Doctrine is Expanded (Roosevelt Corollary)The Monroe Doctrine is Expanded (Roosevelt Corollary) –“speak softly and carry a big stick” U.S. troops will “enforce” U.S. interests in our “Spheres of Interest”U.S. troops will “enforce” U.S. interests in our “Spheres of Interest” Dollar Diplomacy TAFT (use money to influence politics) U.S. government guarantee of loans made to countries in our “Sphere of Interest”Dollar Diplomacy (TAFT) (use money to influence politics) U.S. government guarantee of loans made to countries in our “Sphere of Interest”
U.S. investments “pours” into Latin AmericaU.S. investments “pours” into Latin America –Roads, harbors, hospitals, schools, etc… Military Intervention (protect US interests)Military Intervention (protect US interests) Woodrow Wilson “Moral Diplomacy” (Missionary)Woodrow Wilson “Moral Diplomacy” (Missionary) –He said, "The force of America is the force of moral principle." The central idea behind his policy of "moral diplomacy" was to influence and control foreign nations and events through the exercise of economic power –He said, "The force of America is the force of moral principle." The central idea behind his policy of "moral diplomacy" was to influence and control foreign nations and events through the exercise of economic power (similar to “Human Rights” Issues) MEXICOMEXICO –History of Massive Government Corruption –1911 Violent Revolutions (Brutal – Bloody) Mexico Civil War (v. Herta)Mexico Civil War (v. Herta) –Veracruz incident = Carranza take over –Pancho Villa New Mexico town attackedNew Mexico town attacked 16 American engineers shot16 American engineers shot –John J. Pershing & 1,000 troops sent to Mexico
Debating America’s New Role AMERICAN IMPERIALISM FOR IMPERIALISM Americans need a new frontier Economy would benefit from more markets ( new markets + ) Military would gain power by having bases around the world American ideals of liberty and democracy should be spread Great White FleetGreat White Fleet (showing American Naval Power) AGAINST IMPERIALISMAGAINST IMPERIALISM people in territories would be denied their liberties Racist beliefs are used to justify controlling other nations Overseas involvement is expensive (it will mean more taxes & debts) U.S. has enough problems, we don’t need more responsibilities