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JFK –LBJ- Nixon: Vietnam and the US Involvement

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Presentation on theme: "JFK –LBJ- Nixon: Vietnam and the US Involvement"— Presentation transcript:

1 JFK –LBJ- Nixon: Vietnam and the US Involvement

2 JFK – Domestic and Foreign Policy
Increased military spending Bay of Pigs – US tried to overthrow Communist gov’t in Cuba (fidel Castro) CIA trained anti-Castro Cubans > info leaked to Castro Military disaster

3 JFK – Domestic and Foreign Policy
Berlin Wall After the disaster of the Bay of Pigs > Khrushchev tries to intimidate JFK and get him to leave Berlin JFK refuses > Berlin Wall built

4 JFK – Domestic and Foreign Policy
Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets places missiles in Cuba and aimed them at US Oct 22, 1963 > JFK ordered a naval blockade of Cuba Blockade was successful > no more weapons to Cuba and missiles were removed

5 JFK – Domestic and Foreign Policy
Peace Corps: American volunteering to go to developing countries to assist > help to spread democracy Alliance for Progress > improve US relationship with Latin America

6 JFK – Domestic and Foreign Policy
“New Frontier” April 1961 > Soviets orbit the Earth May 1961 > Alan Shepard orbits the Earth > Feb 1962 John Glenn orbits the Earth 3 times Civil Rights 1963 > Proposes 2 Civil Rights bill with help of his brother – Robert Kennedy (bans discrimination in business and voting) 1962 > 24th Amendment > prohibiting poll tax 1962 > U of Mississippi > James Meredith Nov 22, 1963 > Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas by Lee Harvey Oswald LBJ takes over as President

7 Pre-US Involvement During WWII – Ho Chi Mihn (rebel leader) approached the US for assistance in gaining their independence from France US refused to give Ho any time so he turns to China (Communism)

8 Fight for Independence
Early 1950’s Vietnam is in a full scale revolt to get rid of the French The French want to leave but the US insists that they stay (domino theory) US gives France money and weapons to keep their occupation in Vietnam 1954 > French army massacred at Dienbienphu and withdraws

9 North and South Divided
When Vietnam gained their independence, North and South Vietnam became divided North – Ho Chi Mihn (Communist) South – Diem (democratic)

10 Elections to Unify Vietnam
Elections were suppose to be held the unify the North and South Diem and US knew that if the elections were held, Ho Chi Mihn would win and make Vietnam a Communist country So Diem kept stalling and pushed off the elections This led the many South Vietnamese turning against democracy and siding with Ho Chi Mihn and the North

11 Getting Rid of Diem President Diem became uncontrollable by early 1960’s Stopped listening to the US, who supplied him with weapons and $ to hold off Ho Chi Mihn Started to become greedy and only listened to his wife and brother-in-law Us had him assassinated in 1963

12 US Involvement under JFK
After Diem assassination there was chaos in South Vietnam – no other leaders that could control the South US had to assert more control JFK increased # of US “advisors’’ already in Vietnam to 16,000

13 LBJ and Vietnam Escalation of Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
US boat attacked in waters off North Vietnam Congress gave President Johnson the power take all necessary measures to repel any armed attacked against US They never mention in Vietnam Like a blank check for the military Increases # of troops and starts Rolling Thunder

14 Rolling Thunder: Air Superiority vs. Guerilla Warfare

15 Why Fight? Prevent the Fall to Communism Stop Aggressor nations

16 LBJ and the Home front Resistance to the War Anti-War Movement
Hawks and Doves Teach-ins – college movement Draft resisters Hippies and Flower Children – Start of the Counter Culture Movement

17 A Country Divided

18 The Great Society LBJ’s domestic policy becomes known as the Great Society Extension of the New Deal Programs for the low incomes/ underprivileged More programs passed than FDR in his first 100 days

19 LBJ’s Downfall LBJ tries to do too much
He can’t push his Great Society and the same time as fighting a controversial war He divides the country The federal government tries to hide the negatives and only reports the positive of the war Problem was there was live footage being sent home and the gov’t couldn’t control the TV

20 LBJ’s Downfall Johnson announces in 1968 that he will not seek another term as President Johnson's Speech

21 Nixon and Vietnam Escalates war even more to 540,000
Runs on a policy of Vietnamization – South is going to take more responsibility for the war Reduce US involvement Can’t reduce because South Vietnam is not strong enough

22 Nixon and Vietnamization
Nixon orders more bombings through Rolling Thunder Invasion of Cambodia Bombings of the HO Chi Mihn Trail

23 Ho Chi Mihn Trail

24 More Unrest in the US Country gets more divided on the expansion of the bombings Kent State Protest

25 Kent State Protest

26 Bringing Home US Troops
Dec 1970 Congress repeals the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Sept 1972 > withdrawing of troops > only 60,000 left > Nixon continues the bombings Oct 1972 > cease fire is reached Nixon announces on the eve of election day> Nixon wins re-election Talks falter between two sides Jan 1973 > “Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam’’ was signed US troops are withdrawn over the next few months

27 Results of the War Longest war in US history 57,000 deaths
300,000 wounded $150 billion spent on the war War Powers Act The President can sends troops into action for 60 days then must get permission from Congress to keep them in action (Congress never specifically gave the President permission for Vietnam > No declaration of war)

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