2 French Indochina was made up of VietnamCambodiaLaosRuled by France from the late 1800s until WWIIControlled by Japan during WWII
3 Ho Chi MinhCommunist leader who tried to unite the Vietnamese peasantsFormed the Viet Minh to free Vietnam from foreign ruleFought against Japan during WWII with the assistance of the USAFought against France and the USA after WWII
4 The Geneva Accords, after WWII, divided Vietnam into a communist North and a free South This was to be a temporary division, until elections in 1956Ho Chi Minh led the North.Ngo Dinh Diem led the South.
5 Ho Chi Minh was very popular and Diem was afraid Ho would win Diem refused to hold electionsThis was supported by President EisenhowerRemember containment?This increased military involvement was called brinkmanship
6 The fight against communism continued around the world In Cuba The Bay of PigsCuban Missile CrisisIn GermanyBerlin AirliftThe Berlin Wall“Ich ben ein Berliner.”
7 Eisenhower sent in “advisors” to assist the South Kennedy increased the numbers of these advisors to 16,000 menOn November 1, 1963 Diem was overthrown and assassinatedThree weeks later, Kennedy was also assassinated
8 The North sent small bands of fighters into South Vietnam They were called Viet CongThey fought using guerilla warfareThey mixed with the general population and could not be readily identifiedWhen the Viet Cong attacked, they disappeared into the countryside
9 There was no front like there was in WWII When the Viet Cong escaped across the border into Laos and Cambodia on the Ho Chi Minh Trail, US troops did not follow.The US fought this limited war because they were afraid of bringing in the Chinese.
10 Techniques that were used included the massive bombing of the North President Johnson escalated the war, increasing the number of troops to 538,000.Techniques that were used included the massive bombing of the NorthTonkin Gulf ResolutionDefoliate the jungle with a chemical called Agent OrangeUse napalm to burn off the jungle
11 A turning point of the war was the Tet Offensive, carried out by the North Vietnamese Infiltrated southern citiesCame during the Vietnamese New Year celebration – January 30 and 31Surprise attack on over 100 cities and townsThey went after and killed not only the military but also teachers , doctors and priests
12 Militarily was a failure for the North 45,000 North Vietnamese were killedNo cities capturedBUTFollowing this statement by a US major, “ It became necessary to destroy the town in order to save it”, many Americans began to believe the war was senseless.
13 The average age of most soldiers was 19. If they were drafted, as most were, they were expected to serve one year.This meant most were very inexperienced.
14 Young men could avoid the draft if they were enrolled in college This was viewed as a civil rights issue as this meant that the majority of soldiers were poor and were often minorities, as they were the ones who could not afford college.
15 The country was deeply divided into hawks (those who supported the war) and doves (those who opposed the war)
16 Protests began spreading across the US 50,000 people staged a protest in front of the Pentagon in 1967A demonstration at Kent State University in Ohio in 1970 became a symbol of the anguish over the war: National Guardsmen fired on demonstrators, killing four students
17 President Nixon was elected in 1968 on a promise to end the war “with honor” Nixon increased bombing into CambodiaOn January 27, 1973 the US and South Vietnam agreed to a ceasefire.On March 29, 1973 the last American troops left South Vietnam
18 The United States continued to send money but no troops The United States continued to send money but no troops. The war for the Vietnamese continued until 1975 when the North Vietnamese captured Saigon, which was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.Many Vietnamese fled to the United States following the war. Estimates are that approximately 1.2 million Vietnamese now live here.
19 President Nixon became increasingly paranoid and had to resign after having burglars break into Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate hotel.Vice-President Agnew also resigned due to tax fraudOn August 9, 1974 Gerald Ford became President.
20 There were some far reaching effects of the war, including lowering the voting age to 18. The War Powers Act limits the amount of time troops can be sent into action without permission of CongressAmericans came away with a distrust of government