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The chemical Basis of Inheritance
Chromatin / Chromosomes
Organism estimated size estimated gene number average gene density chromosome # Homo sapiens (human) 2900 million bases ~30,000 1 gene per 100,000 bases 46 Rattus norvegicus (rat) 2,750 million bases ~30,000 1 gene per 100,000 bases 42 Mus musculus (mouse) 2500 million bases ~30,000 1 gene per 100,000 bases 40 Drosophila melanogaster 180 million bases 13,600 1 gene per 9,000 bases 8 (fruit fly) Arabidopsis thaliana 125 million bases 25,500 1 gene per 4000 bases 5 (plant) Zea mays (corn) 5000 million bases ~25,000 1 gene per 200,000 bases 10 Oryza sativa (rice) 565 ~25,000 1 gene per 23000 bases 12 Caenorhabditis elegans 97 million bases 19,100 1 gene per 5000 bases 6 (roundworm) Saccharomyces cerevisiae 12 million bases 6300 1 gene per 2000 bases 16 (yeast) Escherichia coli 4.7 million bases 3200 1 gene per 1400 bases 1 (bacteria) H. influenzae (bacteria) 1.8 million bases 1700 1 gene per 1000 bases 1
Chromosome = Protein + DNA
Indirect Evidence of DNA as genetic material
Bacteria transforming factor- Griffiths 1928
Hershey and Chase Expt. 1952 Viral Life Cycle I
Viral Life cycle II attachment, penetration, replication, assembly, lysis
Hershey and Chase – Protein coat labeled virus
Hershey and Chase – DNA labeled virus
32P - Radioactivity appear in progeny
35S – No Radioactivity in progeny
Hershey and Chase
Watson and Click Model 1953
DNA – A Double Helix
DNA – Sugar phosphate backbone
DNA – Polynucleotide chain
DNA – A Nucleotide unit
DNA – Sugar / pentose
DNA – Organic Bases Purines Pyrimidine
DNA – Base pairing
DNA – 2 antiparallel chains
DNA vs RNA
DNA - The molecule of life Each cell: 46 chromosomes 2 meters of DNA 3 billion DNA bases Approximately 30,000 genes
From DNA to Human
DNA replication – overall process
Three models of DNA replication
Evidence for a Semi-conservative model
The triplet code I
The triplet code II- start
The triplet code III- termination
The triplet code IV- degenerate
The triplet code IV- Non-overlapping
The triplet code V – no punctuation
Breaking the code
Transcription- coding strand
Replication - transcription - translation
t-RNA binding sites
Ribosome – Pro- and Eukaryotic
Ribosome- P and A sites
Gene regulation _Operon 1
Gene regulation _Operon 2
Gene regulation _Operon 3
Mutation_altered genetic info
Types of mutation
Causes of mutation Spontaneous Chemical mutagens Physical agents
Results of mutation Extra compound eyes Variations in pigments Both Wings on same side Sickled cell anaemia
Somatic vs Germinal mutation
Early vs Late somatic mutation
To obtain a karyotype
Frequency of Down’s syndrome against mother’s age
Chromosome Mutation-non disjunction I
Chromosome Mutation-non disjunction II
XY vs XYY
XO _Turner syndrome
How to make seedless fruits? The resulting 3n zygote develops into a 3n embryo inside a seed. Planting this seed will yield a 3n watermelon plant bearing 3n seedless watermelons.
Unpaired chromosomes—results in abnormal gamtes
Doubling of chromosomes allowing pairing of chromosomes and production of normal gametes
Allopolyploidy in cabbage
Gene-mutation_Sickled cell anaemia The amino acid sequences for the normal and abnormal P chains differ in the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at one point in the abnormal polypeptide chains of haemoglobin S
Significance of mutation
DNAStructureandReplication. Transformation: Robert Griffith (1928)
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Transformation Principle In 1928 Fredrick Griffith heated the S bacteria and mixed with the harmless bacteria thinking that neither would make the mice.
DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis Chapters 12 & 13. The Structure of DNA.
DNA, RNA. Genes A segment of a chromosome that codes for a protein. –Genes are composed of DNA.
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Click on a lesson name to select. Molecular Genetics Section 1: DNA: The Genetic Material Section 2: Replication of DNA Section 3: DNA, RNA, and Protein.
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DNA and RNA Structure of DNA Chromosomes and Replication Transcription and Translation Mutation and Gene Regulation.
Biology: DNA, Transcription, Translation, and Protein Synthesis Chapters 9 and 10.
Replication, Transcription and Translation. Griffith’s Experiment.
1 2 Nucleic Acid History 3 Nucleic Acid Structure.
Next round History DNA Stucture.
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DNA/RNA/Protein Synthesis All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com.
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Nucleic Acids Ch 12. Macromolecules n Macromolecules –“giant molecules” –Formed when monomers join together to form polymers Monomer = molecules, sm.
DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Chapter 10 Section 1 Discovery of DNA Meischer Levene Griffith Avery Hershey and Chase Section 2 DNA Structure Section.
Ch. 12. DNA: the genetic material Griffith , used a bacteria that causes pneumonia to figure out that there are smooth (S) strains and rough (R)
8.2 Structure of DNA KEY CONCEPT : BIG QUESTION IS GENETIC MATERIAL MADE OF DNA OR PROTEIN? DNA MOVIE CLIPDNA MOVIE CLIP ***DNA was identified as the genetic.
DNA and RNA Chapters 12 & 13. Hershey and Chase Performed two experiments to show that DNA is genetic material. Worked with viruses to determine if it.
Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics Biology 1009 Microbiology Johnson-Summer 2003.
Chromosome Abnormalities Non-disjunction during meiosis can cause a gamete to have an extra chromosome Trisomy = three copies of the same chromosome. Most.
DNA Biology Lab 11. Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA both built of nucleotides containing Sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) Nitrogenous base (ATCG or AUCG) Phosphate.
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Protein Synthesis: DNA CONTAINS THE GENETIC INFORMATION TO PRODUCE PROTEINS BUT MUST FIRST BE CONVERTED TO RND TO DO SO.
Chapter 12. 1928 – Griffith Discovered bacteria transferred something between them that changed them into a new strain. Called this “bacterial transformation”.
DNA Chapter 10 The Code of Life. History Griffith Hershey and Chase Chargaff Linus Pauling Maurice Wilkins Rosalind Franklin Francis Crick James Watson.
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Protein Synthesis & Mutations All illustrations in this presentation were obtained from Google.com.
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