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ISQA 459 Sales & Operations Planning Planning production to meet the firms strategic objectives –Demand vs. Supply –Volume –Mix How is sales plan different.

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Presentation on theme: "ISQA 459 Sales & Operations Planning Planning production to meet the firms strategic objectives –Demand vs. Supply –Volume –Mix How is sales plan different."— Presentation transcript:

1 ISQA 459 Sales & Operations Planning Planning production to meet the firms strategic objectives –Demand vs. Supply –Volume –Mix How is sales plan different from operations plan? –Demand > Supply –Demand < Supply

2 Balance Supply & Demand Intermediate Term (3-18 months) APP = Competitive Advantage: Anheuser-Busch- 40% of US beer –Production of certain brands in specific plants High volume & low variety/plant –Labor requirements –Meticulous cleaning between batches –Inventory Capacity Goal: –High facility utilization –Why?

3 Hierarchical Planning Annual demand by item and by region Monthly demand for 15 months by product family Monthly demand for quarter by item Forecasts needed Allocates production among plants Determines seasonal plan by product family Determines monthly item production schedules Decision ProcessDecision Level Corporate Plant manager Shop superintendent

4 At this stage Generally Planning for a product line or family (AGGREGATE) not individual SKUs –How much beer at each plant of each type Not container types, etc. Inputs –Strategic objectives, demand forecasts, company policy, financial constraints, capacity constraints. Outputs –Size of workforce, production per month (units or $), inventory levels, and units subcontracted, back ordered, or lost.

5 Aggregate Planning Goal: Specify the optimal combination of the following variables to minimize cost – production rate (units completed per unit of time) – workforce level (number of workers) – inventory on hand (inventory carried from previous period)

6 Balancing Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Production Capacity JanFebMarAprMayJun JanFebMarAprMayJun Suppose the figure to the right represents forecast demand in units. Now suppose this lower figure represents the aggregate capacity of the company to meet demand. What we want to do is balance out the production rate, workforce levels, and inventory to make these figures match up.

7 Aggregate Planning Examples: Unit Demand and Cost Data Materials$5/unit Holding costs$1/unit per mo. Marginal cost of stock-out$1.25/unit per mo. Hiring and training cost$200/worker Layoff costs$250/worker Labor hours required.15 hrs/unit Straight time labor cost$8/hour Beginning inventory250 units Productive hours/worker/day7.25 Paid straight hrs/day8 Suppose we have the following unit demand and cost information: Demand/moJanFebMarAprMayJun

8 Cut-and-Try Example: Determining Straight Labor Costs and Output Productive hours/worker/day7.25 Paid straight hrs/day8 Demand/moJanFebMarAprMayJun Given the demand and cost information below, what are the aggregate hours/worker/month, units/worker, and dollars/worker?

9 Cut-and-Try Example: Determining Straight Labor Costs and Output Productive hours/worker/day7.25 Paid straight hrs/day8 Demand/moJanFebMarAprMayJun Given the demand and cost information below, what are the aggregate hours/worker/month, units/worker, and dollars/worker? 7.25x /0.15=48.33 & 48.33x22= x8hrsx$8=$1408

10 Chase Strategy (Hiring & Firing to meet demand) Lets assume our current workforce is 7 workers. First, calculate net requirements for production, or Demand-Begin Inv. Then, calculate number of workers needed to produce the net requirements, or Net req/Units per worker or # workers Finally, determine the number of workers to hire/fire. Current Workers- Required = (-) hire or (+) fire

11 Chase Strategy (Hiring & Firing to meet demand) Lets assume our current workforce is 7 workers. First, calculate net requirements for production, or =4250 units Then, calculate number of workers needed to produce the net requirements, or 4250/ =3.997 or 4 workers **Round-up Finally, determine the number of workers to hire/fire. In this case we only need 4 workers, we have 7, so 3 can be fired.

12 Complete the calculations for the next two months of the planning horizon.

13 Complete calculations for the next two months planning horizon with the other costs included.

14 Level Workforce Strategy (Surplus and Shortage Allowed) Lets take the same problem as before but this time use the Level Workforce strategy. This time we will seek to use a workforce level of 6 workers.

15 Complete the calculations for next two months in the six month planning horizon.

16 Complete calculations for the next two months in the six month planning horizon with the other costs included. Labor Material Storage Stock-out


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