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3. Aggregate Planning. Aggregate Planning  Provides the quantity and timing of production for intermediate future Usually 3 to 18 months into future.

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Presentation on theme: "3. Aggregate Planning. Aggregate Planning  Provides the quantity and timing of production for intermediate future Usually 3 to 18 months into future."— Presentation transcript:

1 3. Aggregate Planning

2 Aggregate Planning

3  Provides the quantity and timing of production for intermediate future Usually 3 to 18 months into future  Combines (‘aggregates’) production Often expressed in common units: hours, dollars, equivalents  Involves capacity and demand variables

4 Aggregate Planning Goals  Meet demand  Use capacity efficiently  Meet inventory policy  Minimize cost Labor Inventory Plant & equipment Subcontract

5 Options to Consider  Changing inventory levels (with backorders)  Varying workforce size by hiring or layoffs  Varying production rates through overtime or idle time  Subcontracting  Using part-time workers  Influencing demand

6 OptionAdvantagesDisadvantages Some Comments Changing inventory levels Changes in human resources are gradual or none; no abrupt production changes. Inventory holding cost may increase. Shortages may result in lost sales. Applies mainly to production, not service, operations. Varying workforce size by hiring or layoffs Avoids the costs of other alternatives. Hiring, layoff, and training costs may be significant. Used where size of labor pool is large. Options

7 OptionAdvantagesDisadvantages Some Comments Changing inventory levels Changes in human resources are gradual or none; no abrupt production changes. Inventory holding cost may increase. Shortages may result in lost sales. Applies mainly to production, not service, operations. Varying workforce size by hiring or layoffs Avoids the costs of other alternatives. Hiring, layoff, and training costs may be significant. Used where size of labor pool is large.

8 OptionAdvantagesDisadvantages Some Comments Varying productio n rates through overtime or idle time Matches seasonal fluctuations without hiring/ training costs. Overtime premiums; tired workers; may not meet demand. Allows flexibility within the aggregate plan. Sub contracting Permits flexibility and smoothing of the firm’s output. Loss of quality control; reduced profits; loss of future business. Applies mainly in production settings. Options

9 OptionAdvantagesDisadvantages Some Comments Using part- time workers Is less costly and more flexible than full-time workers. High turnover/ training costs; quality suffers; scheduling difficult. Good for unskilled jobs in areas with large temporary labor pools. Influencing demand Tries to use excess capacity. Discounts draw new customers. Uncertainty in demand. Hard to match demand to supply exactly. Creates marketing ideas. Overbooking used in some businesses. Options

10 OptionAdvantagesDisadvantages Some Comments Back ordering during high- demand periods May avoid overtime. Keeps capacity constant. Customer must be willing to wait, but goodwill is lost. Many companies back order. Counter- seasonal product and service mixing Fully utilizes resources; allows stable workforce. May require skills or equipment outside the firm’s areas of expertise. Risky finding products or services with opposite demand patterns. Options

11 Aggregate Planning Strategies  Chase Strategy Matching the production rate to exactly meet the demand by hiring and laying off workers.  Level Strategy Maintain a stable workforce working at constant output rate; absorb demand variations with inventory, backlogs, or lost sales.  Mixed Strategy A combination of chase and level strategies to match supply and demand.

12 Aggregate Planning Methods  Spreadsheet techniques Popular & easy-to-understand Trial & error approach  Mathematical approaches Linear programming models Simulation

13 Example  A manufacturer of roofing supplies has monthly forecasts for the 6-month period Month Expected Demand Production Days Demand per Day Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Total

14 Continued – – – – – 0 0 – JanFebMarAprMayJune=Month  =Number of working days Production rate per working day Level production using average monthly forecast demand Forecast demand

15 Continued  inventory cost: $5/unit, backorder cost: $10/unit  wage: $40/day, hiring cost: $1500, layoff cost: $3000  production rate: 5 units/day

16 Chase Strategy Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May.Jun.Total Forecast Working days Demand per day Workers available8 Hired/Fired H/F cost Labor cost Units Produced Net inventory Inventory cost Total cost

17 Level Strategy Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May.Jun.Total Forecast Working days Demand per day Workers available8 Hired/Fired H/F cost Labor cost Units Produced Net inventory Inventory cost Total cost

18 Mixed Strategy Jan.Feb.Mar.Apr.May.Jun.Total Forecast Working days Demand per day Workers available8 Hired/Fired H/F cost Labor cost Units Produced Net inventory Inventory cost Total cost

19 Linear Programming Models  Workforce planning model  Production planning model

20 Workforce Planning Model  Decision variables W t = number of workers available in period t H t = number of workers hired in period t L t = number of workers laid off in period t P t = number of units produced in period t I t = number of units in inventory at the end of period t B t = number of units backordered at the end of period t

21 Continued  Given parameters D t = demand forecast in period t n t = number of units made by one worker in period t C t W = cost of one worker in period t C t H, C t L = cost to hire or lay off one worker in period t C t P = cost to produce one unit in period t C t I, C t B = cost to hold or backorder one unit for period t

22 Continued  Objective function  Constraints  Possible extensions

23 Production Planning Model MarAprMay Demand8001, Capacity Beginning inventory100 Production cost Inventory cost2 22

24 Model 1  P t = number of units produced in period t I t = units in inventory at the end of period t

25 Model 2  Let X ij be the number of items produced in month i and consumed in month j.

26 Another ExampleCosts Regular time$40per tire Overtime$50per tire Subcontracting$70per tire Inventory$ 2per tire per month MarAprMay Demand8001, Capacity: Regular Regular Overtime Overtime Subcontracting Subcontracting Beginning inventory100 tires

27 Model 2  Let X ij, Y ij and Z ij be the number of items produced in month i and consumed in month j, using regular production, overtime, and subcontracting, respectively.


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