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Brynn Cauffman, Spencer Cox, Taryn Crews, Michael Grizzle, Hannah Ives, Tina Roren, Yesenia Saldivar.

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Presentation on theme: "Brynn Cauffman, Spencer Cox, Taryn Crews, Michael Grizzle, Hannah Ives, Tina Roren, Yesenia Saldivar."— Presentation transcript:

1 Brynn Cauffman, Spencer Cox, Taryn Crews, Michael Grizzle, Hannah Ives, Tina Roren, Yesenia Saldivar


3  One of the most famous sites on the campus of Tianjin University … is a stone engraved with a copy of the very first diploma. … Next to the date on the diploma, 1900, the graduate’s name is printed, along with the names of his father, grandfather, and great- grandfather. … The diploma speaks volumes about the strength of family tradition in Chinese society. Like any individual in Chinese society, the graduate exists primarily in the context of his family. His achievements belong to them all.

4  Traditional Buddhist Temple’s Different images of the Buddha  Fierce-looking Warriors Rough-looking beards and mustaches, and the carry large swords  GLOBE study Have demonstrated, it is possible to cluster countries into groups that are similar to one another in terms of language, religion, and geographical closeness

5  The Family Altar  No equivalent word for privacy Stress the importance of the group rather than the individual  The word “I” Has a negative connotation

6  The specific aspects of the altar are: Roundness, symbolizing the continuity and structural completeness of the family Harmony within the family and the broader society Fluidity or the capacity to change while maintaining solid traditions

7  The Chinese expatriate Faced discrimination and resentment in Indonesia and Malaysia  Indonesian Government Assumed control of major Chinese companies valued in the billions  In Malaysia Chinese cannot be the CEO of a company seeking government contracts

8  Hong Kong 95% of whose citizens are Chinese, population of 7.1 million, and occupies only a small area of 412 square miles Due to increased success of businesses executives were forced to build “vertical factories” housed in tall buildings

9  The Altar Is the “ties that bind” a dispersed family and serves as a focal point for viewing an extended family as including the living, the dead, and those as yet unborn. Very helpful in providing insight into the values, attitudes, and behaviors of the Chinese today, wherever they may live.

10  Problems with roundness. Can’t bear children Chinese Law Premature death  Inequality of Sexes  Polygamy  Chinese Business  Limited Growth  Non-family members

11  Long-term perspective 10, 20, 100-year increments  Confucian Dynamic Long-term orientation Protestant ethic Louis Kraar  System of Bao-Jia Arranged by neighborhoods & districts Unit Leaders

12  A person exists only in relation to others.  Layers of Guanxi People and ancestors People from the same village Members of the family Family and close associates  Contracts in Chinese Culture  Chinese and the use of banks

13  “Spacemen”  Working with non-Chinese businessmen  Guanxi Limitations Developed slowly Excludes individuals who provide new business opportunities At odds with the contract-based business

14  Second Characteristic of the family altar  “The Japanese Garden”  Harmonious Family  Most common prayer  Chinese belief in luck and fate

15  Third characteristic of the family altar  Capacity to change while maintaining solid traditions.  Reflects the Chinese relation-orientation  Innovative and Entrepreneurial Science and Civilization in China  Prayer to gods and goddesses

16  Roundness Han= the largest cultural group  Harmony 400 ethnic groups  Fluidity Dynasties in Chinese history Endless cycle of renewal and decline


18  Population of 4.3 million  Population density of 6,729 (U.S- 32)  Very poor country 50 years ago however now is the leading banking and finance center  GDP of $24,840, 29 th in the world  One of the world’s most prosperous countries  World’s busiest port  People usually see Singapore as a very friendly country and have a positive experience upon visiting

19  Venue with wide variety of traditional ethnic foods  Each center is a collection of at least 20 food stalls at the same location  Casual/ informal atmosphere  Unique aspect of Singapore’s culture

20  In the 1950s and 1960s the centers were operating under unhygienic conditions Lack of piped water and cook stations  Government developed a plan to build designated areas for hawkers  Census in 1968 and 1969 registered 18,000 street hawkers Hawking licenses eliminated illegal hawking

21  In 1970 government began to relocate street hawkers New centers equipped with proper facilities for cooking and efficient drainage systems  By February 1986 all street hawkers were completely relocated  In 2000 there were 139 centers with 17,331 stalls  In 2007 there were 113 centers with 6,000 cooked food stalls  All centers are licensed by the ENV

22  Modern Singapore began in 1819 when Sir Stamford Raffles claimed the island  In 1832 Singapore was established as the Straits Settlement and became as separate British crown colony in 1867  During WWII the Japanese occupied the nation and renamed Syonan-to (“Light of the Island”)  In 1946 Singapore became a British crown colony  In 1963 Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo formed Malaysia

23  In 1965 Singapore became an independent nation  Singapore initiated a massive industrialization project of economic restructuring  Confucian ideals employed by Chinese

24  Hawker Centers have Chinese, Malay, Peranakan, Indian and international food  Government encourages ethnic groups to intermingle  Stall holders have to work together and behave responsibly

25  Nation before community and society before self  Family as the basic unit of society  Community support and respect for the individual  Consensus, not confliction  Racial and religions harmony

26  Local term “Kiasu-ness”  “Singlish” miss of English and common Chinese phrases  Military training contributes to cooperation among different races  Educational system also focuses on cooperation among the different races

27  1 unspoken rule at a hawker center: be quick and efficient  Customers only have a few seconds to order their food  Meaningless conversation is left out  Tendency of Singaporeans to make conversation is to be short and efficient  Singapore has advanced technologies in finance and transportation systems

28  Public buses: light turn green for them during rush hours  Singaporeans deemphasize leisure due to their efficiency & productivity  Birth rate = 1.4 babies per woman Estimated 1/3 of Singapore's population will be 60 or over by 2030  Social Development Unit = a department created by the government Encourages college graduates to marry Called “single, desperate, and ugly” department

29  Number of men and women working at a hawker center have similar positions with equally long hours Women frequently occupy the upper hierarchy  In comparison with other Asian countries, Singapore’s views equality for women  Women have become CEOs, ambassadors, and leaders of major companies

30  Large number of rules compared to other countries Many youths feel stymied because of the number of rules  Fines for littering (1 st time offenders are fined 1,000 Singapore dollars)  Death penalty is standard for drug trafficking ranging from 15g of heroin to 1.2kg of opium  No homeless people in Singapore

31  Internal Security Act (ISA) lets official detain people without trial  Prostitution in better sections of the city in Singapore  The government is paternalistic and in all- providing authority  Hawker centers are safe places and usually open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week  Low crime rate compared to neighboring nations

32  Hawker centers sell traditional Southeast Asian food as well, as newer Western food  All three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indian) celebrate major festivals Government has decreed all such ethnic celebrations are national holidays  Educational system is ditching rote learning and memorization techniques & emphasizing more on math and science


34  2 nd largest country in the world  Population of more than 1 billion (China is number 1)  Colonized by Britain but became independent in 1947  Member of the BRIC club (Brazil, Russia, India, China)  Life expectancy has increased from 32 to 65

35  This nation has the largest number of college educated scientists and computer specialists in the world  India’s limited success is its dramatic increase in population without corresponding growth in resources  Religious diversity is a major feature of India For 2,000 years India was almost completely Hindu

36  cTEjtA cTEjtA  3 most important Gods in Hindu are Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Preserver), & Shiva (the Destroyer)  Dancing Shiva has been described as “clearest image of the activity of God which any art or religion can boast of”

37  When Shiva lapses into activity the cosmos become chaos and destruction follows  The Dance of Shiva represents both the conception of world processes as a supreme being’s pastime and in the very nature of that blessed being  The dance symbolizes the 5 main activities of the supreme being: creation and development; preservation and support; change and destruction; shrouding, symbolism, illusion, and giving rest; and release, salvation, and grace

38  Basic Indian culture comes from the people’s Dravidian and Aryan ethnic origins Dravidian’s came to India from the eastern Mediterranean coast 3000 years before Christ About 1500 BC this civilization fell into decline, and its people migrated to the southern part of the Indian’s subcontinent At the same time the Aryan’s arrived in India from Persia  Today’s population = 72% Aryan origin, 25% Dravidian

39  India’s most populous cities (among the 40 largest in the world) include: Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, and Bangalore  India has recovered from cycles of chaos again harmony time and time again  North and South India have different historical roots North has been subjected to a series of foreign invasions so the North is more of a mixed heritage

40  Began in north India in the early 13 th century until the middle of the 19 th century  Muslim rulers were harsh on Hindu’s except the great Mughal emperor Akbar who married a Hindu princess Fostered tolerance for all religions and had Hindu’s in high positions and received Jesuit priests in his court  There have been forceful conversion of Hindus to Muslims These new Muslims were turned into second class citizens

41  Confrontation between Muslims and Hindus have always been incompatible religious systems and a mutual hatred between the two still is around today  The Muslim Mughal empire began to erode in the 18 th century Independent regional kingdoms sprang up everywhere until the British came in the 19 th century

42  Instituted direct rule over India in 1857 Many Indians think of this event as the 1 st war of Independence  The British garison at Kanpur was slaughtered  Early expressions of nationalism first occurred in the Indian National Congress in 1885 and the All- India Muslim League in 1906  Inspired by Gandhi the Indian National Congress began a program of peaceful noncooperation with British Rule Gandhi was killed right after India gained their independence from Britain

43  Jawaharlal Nehru, head of Congress became the first prime minister of India in 1947 His concepts were freedom, democracy, socialism, world peace, and international cooperation  Indira Gandhi succeeded Nehru in office (is Nehru’s daughter) Invoked the emergency provisions of the constitution in 1975 and suspended civil liberties

44  Rajiv Gandhi (Indira’s son) became prime minister on her death  On Rajiv’s death the Congress party was swept back into power  Rajiv’s widow, Sonia Gandhi is now the president of the Congress party Forbes magazine ranked her as the sixth most powerful woman in the world in 2007

45  Philosophy overlaps religion  Hinduism  Bharata Varsha: “Land of actors”  Happiness through spiritual enlightenment  Mukti (salvation) and Moksha (Perception)  Four paths; Bhakti yoga, Karma yoga, Jnana yoga and Raja yoga

46  Jivas (souls)  Personalized unconscious; Sattva (clarity,light) Rajas ( passion, desire) Tamas (dullness, darkness)  Hindu Astrology  Endless cycle of the soul through birth, life, death, and reincarnation

47  Stage 1: Student Learn  Stage 2: Householder Family Vocation Community

48  Stage 3: Retirement True education “White-bearded man”  Stage 4: Sannyasin “One who neither hates nor loves anything” Mukti  Reward or punishment based on their accumulated good and bad deeds

49  Importance of Astrology Matching the horoscopes of a bride and groom  Concept of time is cyclical  Religious images made of permanent materials  Practice religion at home


51  Extended family Weakened by migration to cities and towns  Preference for a son Putra: “he who protects from going to hell”  Dowry Against the law “Bride burning “ and deaths of women  Masculinization of the Indian population Sex determination tests Illegal

52  Love cannot be self-centered  Children not considered sacred in poorer parts of India  Population of Children exceeds the population of the United States  Regulate birth rates  The father is a feared disciplinary figure  Father-son relationship

53  History Ancient times Medieval times  Rituals Sati Purdah

54  Modern India  Independent women in rural areas  1979: Mother Teresa wins the Nobel Peace Price  2007: Pratibha Patil first woman President  High rate of crimes against women  Rising increase in sexual harassment

55  Man’s worth and recognition bound on the reputation of his family  The family contributes to decisions  dwdpY dwdpY  Arranged marriage  Divorce disgraceful (changing)  Child marriage; hard on the girl Against the law but still common

56 Shiva and Parvati Both genders part of the Indian society Just as the Dance of Shiva, each member of the family fulfills a role dictated by family tradition

57  Sense of duty (dharma)  3 categories of dharma: Universal principles of harmony (sanatana dharma) Relative ethical systems varying by social class (varnashrama dharma) Personal moral conduct (svadharma)  “For the protection of the good, for the destruction of the evil, for the firm establishment of the national righteousness, I am born again and again.”

58  Oldest source of ethical ideas  Composite poem following rivalry between 2 families  Illustrates the illusory nature of the world  Repository of Hindu beliefs and customs  Based on the assumption dharma is paramount in society  Bhagavad-Gita (Song of the Blessed One)

59 “It was my duty.”

60  Originates in the nonadherence to dharma by those in positions of power  3 actors: 2 contestants, peacemaker  Peacemaker is victor because they restore harmony

61  Sole repositories of virtues and vices of institution  Social reform movements remove individuals holding positions of authority  Same social issues from Mughal and British Indian empires still exist  Institutions on which society was founded no longer work

62  Violence within a harmonious society  Character is rooted in depths of the mind rather than heat of action  Worldly acts are part of illusion of life and have no moral significance

63  Avoid good and evil, prefer knowledge and ignorance  Destructive acts by ignorant people are not sins  Destructive acts by knowledgeable people are held against them in their search for enlightenment

64  Holy water  Washes away a person’s sins  Required of Hindus at least once in life  Government attempts to clean polluted waters have not been effective  Dance of Shiva: death among life, decomposition next to creation, pollution mixed with purity

65  Officially outlawed, still exists  Natural law (soul is born into appropriate caste)  Honors and duties given to each class  Higher classes profit at the expense of those lower down

66  Brahmans: priests, teachers, intellectuals  Kshatriyas: warriors, police, administrators  Vaishyas: skilled craftspeople, farmers  Shudras: artisans, workers  Dalits (Untouchables): work that is considered socially undesirable and unclean, lie outside normal society

67  Subcastes  Friendships within jati are closer and less formal  A person's name gives information about jati and what region of the country their family is from  Internalized jati norms define correct actions for individuals

68  All interests within caste regarded as identical  Equality of opportunity for everyone within caste  Allowed to develop experience and skills needed to succeed  Self-governing castes  Crimes committee by upper castes punished more severely  Dance of Shiva: preservation of order interspaced with disorder

69  Symbol of human injustice  Ostracized from rest of society  Proximity to contaminating factor constitutes a permanent pollution Collective and hereditary  Irrevocably “unclean”

70  Government, and supposedly nation, committed to social equality  Gandhi  Harijan : “children of God”  Caste system is illegal  22.5% of government jobs reserved for untouchables  Deep rooted prejudices are not easily eliminated

71  Violence against Dalits who fall in love with members of upper castes  Intercaste marriages still evoke ferocious responses  Upper castes protest accommodation through “affirmative action”  1990: upper caste students burned themselves to death in protest

72  Harijan beginning to assert democratic rights through organized political activity  Power becoming ascendant over status  2008: Mayawati (Dalit leader) elected chief minister of Uttar Pradesh  Education acts as solvent to castes  Government payouts to those who marry members of lower castes

73  Elders have more authority than youth  Men have greater authority than women  Maternal nurturing on part of superior  Filial respect and compliance on part of subordinate  Social behavior extends into workplace  Changing social norms are consistent with the evolutionary aspect of the Dance of Shiva

74  Enables, prepares, and progresses individuals through the cycle of life  Originally described as duty without concern for material outcomes  Put aside caste prejudices in workplace, but return to social norms at home  Reverse discrimination  Dance of Shiva: order within disorder

75  Family, relative, castes, language, religion  Very informal and friendly within groups  Interfere with formally designated work hierarchy

76  Uncertainty avoidance Nearly tied with US, Germany is much higher Consistent with Hindu philosophy of life as an illusion  Power distance India has high power distance, US and Germany have low power distance  Individualism India very collectivist, US and Germany are more individualistic  Masculinity

77  Honoring family leads to nepotism, dishonesty, and corruption  Guilt and anxiety are aroused only when actions go against primacy of relations  No concern for foreign standards of ethics

78  Viewed as order giver  Similar to attitude in Germany  US perceives managers as problem solvers and facilitators  View inclusive managers as incompetent

79  Bollywood is largest producer of films in the world 800 movies a year  “protector from reality, concealer of truth, restorer of tranquility, enemy of fear and sadness, and cleanser of the soul”  Influencers ideas of the good life, social values, family, and romantic relationships

80  Foreign civilizations are influencing India, but spiritual nutrient of Hindu philosophy is still present  India continues its journey toward salvations from worldly concerns  Hindu philosophy is key to understand how a nation of such diversity manages to bear its burdens while its people remain filled with peace

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