Presentation on theme: "Dr Ann Henry Lecture 1: Tuesday 29th October 2013 Forensic & Applied Cognitive Psychology."— Presentation transcript:
Dr Ann Henry Lecture 1: Tuesday 29th October 2013 Forensic & Applied Cognitive Psychology
Lecture 1 (29/10): Critical Approaches to Theories of Crime Lecture 2 (5/11): Sexual Offending (Rape) Lecture 3 (12/11): Sexual Offending (Paedophilia & Child Molesters) Lecture 4 (19/11): Critical Approaches to Mental Illness, Personality & Crime (part 1) Lecture 5 (26/11): Critical Approaches to Mental Illness, Personality & Crime (part 2) Lecture 6 (3/12): Critical Approaches to Offender Profiling (FBI & Statistical)
By the end of the lecture you should be able to: Briefly define Forensic & Criminal Psychology. Describe & explain different types of theories of crime e.g. Macro-level or Societal; Community or locality; Group & socialisation influence; Individual/ Psychological: Social Constructionism. Consider the strengths & limitations of each of these theories.
Forensic psychology is concerned with the psychological aspects of legal processes in courts. The term is also often used to refer to investigative and criminological psychology: applying psychological theory to criminal investigation, understanding psychological problems associated with criminal behaviour and the treatment of those who have committed offences. http://careers.bps.org.uk/area/forensic (2013) http://careers.bps.org.uk/area/forensic
The largest single employer of forensic psychologists in the UK is the HM Prison Service.HM Prison Service Forensic psychologists are also be employed rehabilitation units, secure hospitals, the social services and in university departments. Some practitioners also go into private consultancy.
The daily key tasks for forensic psychologists may include: piloting and implementing treatment programmes, modifying offender behaviour, responding to the changing needs of staff and prisoners as well as reducing stress for staff and prisoners.
Forensic psychologists also provide: hard research evidence to support practice, including undertaking statistical analysis for prisoner profiling, giving evidence in court plus advising parole boards and mental health tribunals.
Social context of crime; Fear of crime Victims of crime. Theories of crime; Violent offenders; Sexual offending. Police psychology; Terrorism; Eyewitness Testimony. Offender profiling; lie detecting; false confessions. Mental Disorders & Crime; Juries & Decision making. Psychological treatments for prisoners; Risk assessment, dangerousness & recidivism.
Howitt (2006) outlines a broad range of theories. Macro-level or Societal Community or locality Group & socialisation influence Individual/ Psychological
Marxist Conflict theory Merton’s Strain Theory Feminist Theory
Marxist conflict theory Society has evolved in a state of conflict between competing groups in society over material resources & institutionalised power. Dominant class uses laws to control other groups & maintain its command or hegemony (political leadership)
Merton’s Strain Theory Recognises that society’s goals (prosperity, achievement etc.) are only available to a limited few. The rest can only achieve goals through deviant means. Others adapt to the strain by retreating into alcoholism, drug addiction, suicide, vagrancy.
Feminist Theory Holds that criminality is associated with males. Males seek to maintain power in the gendered social system through the deployment of violence against women & children. Male control is through their access to power over social institutions such as the law. Powerless men are inclined to the cruder expressions of power which lead to their imprisonment.
Differential Opportunity theory Explains the patterns of crime likely to be exhibited by individuals in terms of the range of crime opportunities close to home. Different individuals display different modes of adjustment or adaptation to their particular social strains.
Subcultural Delinquency Theories Differential Association Theory Lifestyle & Routine Activities Theory Social Learning Theory Criminogenic factors in childhood
Subcultural Delinquency Theories Youngsters with problems especially to do with the home & school tend to associate with gangs & other groupings in which they can achieve some status. Through criminal activity, delinquent groups may provide an opportunity to achieve a sense of self-esteem.
Differential Association Theory Circumstances of upbringing determines their exposure to crime & pressure to commit crime. Hence, learning to be a criminal applies to different strata of society e.g. middle class might be exposed to fraud, tax evasion etc.
Lifestyle & Routine Activities Theory Argues that most crime is trivial & impulsive – thus elements of opportunism (Cohen & Felson, 1979)
Social Learning Theory Bandura (1973, 1983) Vicarious learning through observing other people. However, doesn’t explain under what circumstances criminal behaviour will or will not be learnt, so has limited explanatory power.
Criminogenic factors in childhood Glueck & Glueck, 1962, 1968) claim that the following are antecedents of antisocial & criminal behaviour: Punitive child-rearing practices & attitudes (strict discipline, corporal punishment, authoritarian attitudes) Lack of love or rejection Laxness (poor monitoring, lack of supervision) Family disruption (separation, divorce, instability, marital conflict) Deviant parental characteristics (criminality, mental health problems, substance abuse)
Criminogenic factors in childhood (cont) Yoshikawa (1995) argued that delinquency is product of interaction of multiplicity of factors: Neurological & biological factors Low cognitive ability Childhood history of antisocial behaviour Parental substance abuse Violent or socially disorganised neighbourhoods Media violence
Criminogenic factors in childhood (cont) Farrington (1996) claims that childhood conduct disorder and adult Antisocial Personality Disorder have the same aetiological precursors: Low family income Poor housing Large family size Convicted parents Harsh or erratic parental discipline Low intelligence Early school leaving
Protective factors from delinquency Farrington (1998) Personal Resources – resilient youngsters had better technical/spatial intelligence, flexible temperaments, approach-orientated, more positive self-esteem & active coping styles Social Resources – resilient youngsters were more satisfied with social support & experienced openness, autonomy & low conflict in their residential institution.
Personality Theories Eysenck’s biosocial theory emphasises link between biological factors, personality & crime. High extraversion, high psychoticism & high neuroticism
Biological Theories Genetics e.g. genetic make-up, brain activity, hormonal imbalances Evolutionary theory – inherited genes Body shape type: mesomorph, endomorph & ectomorph Evidence is contradictory and controversial
Attachment theory Based on John Bowlby’s work in 1950s Bonding & attachment in infancy & early childhood Internal Working Model Different types of attachment: Secure and Insecure Ainsworth (1970s)- classified insecure into Anxious-Avoidant, Anxious-Ambivalent & Disorganised
Isomorphism hypothesis Close relationship between the characteristics of abuse and its effect on the victim. Widom (1989) explored links between childhood abuse and adult criminality. Victims of physical abuse have highest rates of violent offences (16% of sample) Victims of neglect had similar levels of violence (13%) Controls (not abused as children) had 7% risk of violent offending in adulthood Hence, evidence is inconclusive & other factors need to be taken into consideration (see previous list re criminogenic factors)
Howitt (2006) summarises that there is little reliable evidence of the link between intelligence level and crime. Controversial topic as also linked to the debate about race and intelligence.
Constructions of crime Social Cultural Historical
Briefly defined Forensic & Criminal Psychology & the work involved. Outlined & described different theories of crime: Macro-level or Societal Community or locality Group & socialisation influence Individual/ Psychological
Howitt, D. (2012). Introduction to Forensic and Criminal Psychology, 4 th ed, Harlow, Pearson Education Ltd. McGuire, M., Morgan, R & Reiner, R. (2007). The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Towl, G.J., Farrington., D.P., Crighton, D.A. & Hughes, G. (2008). Dictionary of Forensic Psychology, Devon, Willan Publishing. Ward. T. & Stewart, C. (2003). The relationship between human needs and criminogenic needs, Psychology, Crime & Law, Vol. 9(3), pp. 219 -224