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Dr Ann Henry Tues 13 th November 2012 Forensic & Applied Cognitive Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Ann Henry Tues 13 th November 2012 Forensic & Applied Cognitive Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Ann Henry Tues 13 th November 2012 Forensic & Applied Cognitive Psychology

2  Different types of mental illness/ disorder  Criminal Justice System  Treatments in mental health settings

3  Risk Assessment (brief overview)  Theories of crime  Sexual Offending – paedophiles & child molestation

4  Recidivism – relapse into crime  Risk & dangerousness  Various statistical measures: PCL-R, HCR-20 (Historical, Clinical, Risk), SVR-20 (Sexual Violence Risk) etc.  Risk factors: Static & Dynamic  Static factors (e.g. age, gender, history of violence, personality disorder, major mental illness etc.)  Dynamic factors (e.g. emotional & cognitive disposition, impulsivity, active symptoms of major mental illness, location, associates, lack of support)

5  Howitt (2006) outlines a broad range of theories.  Macro-level or Societal  Community or locality  Group & socialisation influence  Individual/ Psychological

6  Marxist Conflict theory  Merton’s Strain Theory  Feminist Theory

7  Marxist conflict theory  Society has evolved in a state of conflict between competing groups in society over material resources & institutionalised power.  Dominant class uses laws to control other groups & maintain its command or hegemony (political leadership)

8  Merton’s Strain Theory  Recognises that society’s goals (prosperity, achievement etc.) are only available to a limited few. The rest can only achieve goals through deviant means.  Others adapt to the strain by retreating into alcoholism, drug addiction, suicide, vagrancy.

9  Feminist Theory  Holds that criminality is associated with males. Males seek to maintain power in the gendered social system through the deployment of violence against women & children.  Male control is through their access to power over social institutions such as the law.  Powerless men are inclined to the cruder expressions of power which lead to their imprisonment.

10  Differential Opportunity theory  Explains the patterns of crime likely to be exhibited by individuals in terms of the range of crime opportunities close to home.  Different individuals display different modes of adjustment or adaptation to their particular social strains.

11  Subcultural Delinquency Theories  Differential Association Theory  Lifestyle & Routine Activities Theory  Social Learning Theory  Criminogenic factors in childhood

12  Subcultural Delinquency Theories  Youngsters with problems especially to do with the home & school tend to associate with gangs & other groupings in which they can achieve some status.  Through criminal activity, delinquent groups may provide an opportunity to achieve a sense of self-esteem.

13  Differential Association Theory  Circumstances of upbringing determines their exposure to crime & pressure to commit crime.  Hence, learning to be a criminal applies to different strata of society e.g. middle class might be exposed to fraud, tax evasion etc.

14  Lifestyle & Routine Activities Theory  Argues that most crime is trivial & impulsive – thus elements of opportunism (Cohen & Felson, 1979)

15  Social Learning Theory  Bandura (1973, 1983) Vicarious learning through observing other people.  However, doesn’t explain under what circumstances criminal behaviour will or will not be learnt, so has limited explanatory power.

16  Criminogenic factors in childhood  Glueck & Glueck, 1962, 1968) claim that the following are antecedents of antisocial & criminal behaviour:  Punitive child-rearing practices & attitudes (strict discipline, corporal punishment, authoritarian attitudes)  Lack of love or rejection  Laxness (poor monitoring, lack of supervision)  Family disruption (separation, divorce, instability, marital conflict)  Deviant parental characteristics (criminality, mental health problems, substance abuse)

17  Criminogenic factors in childhood (cont)  Yoshikawa (1995) argued that delinquency is product of interaction of multiplicity of factors:  Neurological & biological factors  Low cognitive ability  Childhood history of antisocial behaviour  Parental substance abuse  Violent or socially disorganised neighbourhoods  Media violence

18  Criminogenic factors in childhood (cont)  Farrington (1996) claims that childhood conduct disorder and adult Antisocial Personality Disorder have the same aetiological precursors:  Low family income  Poor housing  Large family size  Convicted parents  Harsh or erratic parental discipline  Low intelligence  Early school leaving

19  Protective factors from delinquency  Farrington (1998)  Personal Resources – resilient youngsters had better technical/spatial intelligence, flexible temperaments, approach-orientated, more positive self-esteem & active coping styles  Social Resources – resilient youngsters were more satisfied with social support & experienced openness, autonomy & low conflict in their residential institution.

20  Personality Theories  Biological Theories  Attachment Theory  Isomorphism hypothesis

21  Personality Theories  Eysenck’s biosocial theory emphasises link between biological factors, personality & crime.  High extraversion, high psychoticism & high neuroticism

22  Biological Theories  Genetics e.g. genetic make-up, brain activity, hormonal imbalances  Evolutionary theory – inherited genes  Body shape type: mesomorph, endomorph & ectomorph  Evidence is contradictory and controversial

23  Attachment theory  Based on John Bowlby’s work in 1950s  Bonding & attachment in infancy & early childhood  Internal Working Model  Different types of attachment: Secure and  Insecure  Ainsworth (1970s)- classified insecure into  Anxious-Avoidant, Anxious-Ambivalent & Disorganised

24  Isomorphism hypothesis  Close relationship between the characteristics of abuse and its effect on the victim.  Widom (1989) explored links between childhood abuse and adult criminality.  Victims of physical abuse have highest rates of violent offences (16% of sample)  Victims of neglect had similar levels of violence (13%)  Controls (not abused as children) had 7% risk of violent offending in adulthood  Hence, evidence is inconclusive & other factors need to be taken into consideration (see previous list re criminogenic factors)

25  Howitt (2006) summarises that there is little reliable evidence of the link between intelligence level and crime.  Controversial topic as also linked to the debate about race and intelligence.

26  Constructions of crime  Social  Cultural  Historical

27  Media coverage – recent Jimmy Saville case & other cases of paedophilia/ child sexual abuse/ abusers  Extreme hostility & negative stigma towards paedophiles  Recidivism comparatively low  Megan’s law (USA) Megan abducted & murdered in 1994  Controversial & inconclusive research on role of pornography & sexual offending  Internet paedophiles

28  paedophiles & child molesters  Rapists (cover in lecture 4 on Tues 20 th Nov)

29  Classifications of child molesters (Groth & Birnbaum, 1978)  Fixated Offenders  Developmentally fixated on a permanent or temporary basis. Sexual interest in children rather than adults.

30  Regressed Offenders  Men matured in their sexuality but return to an earlier level of psychosexual development.  Psychosexual history shows primary interest in peer aged or adult individuals, rather than younger ones

31  How common is paedophilia?  Unclear as depends on definition of sexual abuse used e.g. indecent assault, gross indecency, buggery, intercourse, rape.  Non-paedophile sexual arousal – conflicting findings (Hall et al, 1995)  Youthful offenders  Graves et al (1996) in USA found that up to half of child sexual abuse carried out by persons under age of 21

32  Theories of Paedophilia  Preconditions model  Psychotherapeutic/ cognitive model  Sexualisation model  Pathways model

33  Preconditions model of child molestation  Araji & Finkelhor (1985)  1) Emotional congruence with children (lack self- esteem, psychosocially immature, may have need to dominate)  2) Social arousal by children (child pornography, hormonal abnormalities/ imbalances)  3) Blockages preventing adult contact (lack effective social skills, problems relating to adult females, repressive sexual socialisation in childhood)  4) Disinhibition of norms against adult/child sex (offenders may be senile, alcohol may decrease inhibitions, incest-tolerant subculture)

34  Psychotherapeutic/ cognitive model  Suggests 4 steps  1) Cognitive distortions/ distorted thinking e.g. having sex with a child is a good way of an adult teaching a child about sex. Beliefs about sexual nature of children.  2) Grooming (bribes of sweets, other treats, trips out, threats of violence)  3) Planning through fantasy  4) Denial – denying the consequences of their actions

35  Sexualisation model  Howitt (1995) Experience of sexual abuse in childhood is a developmental process which can lead to paedophilia.  Early sexual abuse – especially if extreme or repeated - possible sexual experience with peers- adolescent paedophile career – paedophile adult  Controversial theory as women are more likely to be victims of childhood sexual, but less likely to be sexual offenders

36  Pathways model (Ward & Siegert, 2002)  Multi-factorial model – combining elements of previous models/ theories  Distal & Proximal factors  Distal factors (predispositions e.g. genetic/ childhood development)  Proximal factors (that might trigger predispositions e.g. environment, negative mood state)

37  4 psychological mechanisms  1) Intimacy & social skills deficits  2) Deviant sexual scripts  3) Emotional dysregulation  4) Cognitive distortions

38  Children as sexual objects  Entitlement- to have their sexual needs met  Dangerous world – children seen as reliable & trusting & gives offender comfort against danger  Uncontrollable – claims not to be on control of own actions & blames outside factors e.g. drugs/ alcohol  Nature of Harm – believes not all sexual activity is harmful & children can benefit from sexual activity with adults

39  Internet Paedophile offending  Controversial topic – whether linked to contact paedophilia or not  Robbins & Darlington (2003) 27,000 people in the world go onto child pornography sites every day. I million images of child sexual abuse in circulation.  Internet chat rooms  Sexual fantasy vs contact sexual acts with children

40  Risk Assessment  Theories of crime  Sexual Offending – paedophiles & child molestation

41  Murphy, W.D. & McGrath, R. (2008).  Best Practices in Sex Offender Treatment, Prison Service Journal, issue 178, pgs 3-9.  Strickland, S.M (2008). Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma and Cognitive Distortions, J Interpers Violence 2008; 23; p  Towl, G.J., Farrington., D.P., Crighton, D.A. & Hughes, G. (2008). Dictionary of Forensic Psychology, Devon, Willan Publishing.  Ward. T. & Stewart, C. (2003). The relationship between human needs and criminogenic needs, Psychology, Crime & Law, September 2003, Vol. 9(3), pp. 219 /224

42  No Lecture on Mon 19 th Nov  Rapists  Treatment of Sexual offenders  Violent Offending

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