Presentation on theme: "Dr Ann Henry Tues 13 th November 2012 Forensic & Applied Cognitive Psychology."— Presentation transcript:
Dr Ann Henry Tues 13 th November 2012 Forensic & Applied Cognitive Psychology
Different types of mental illness/ disorder Criminal Justice System Treatments in mental health settings
Risk Assessment (brief overview) Theories of crime Sexual Offending – paedophiles & child molestation
Recidivism – relapse into crime Risk & dangerousness Various statistical measures: PCL-R, HCR-20 (Historical, Clinical, Risk), SVR-20 (Sexual Violence Risk) etc. Risk factors: Static & Dynamic Static factors (e.g. age, gender, history of violence, personality disorder, major mental illness etc.) Dynamic factors (e.g. emotional & cognitive disposition, impulsivity, active symptoms of major mental illness, location, associates, lack of support)
Howitt (2006) outlines a broad range of theories. Macro-level or Societal Community or locality Group & socialisation influence Individual/ Psychological
Marxist Conflict theory Merton’s Strain Theory Feminist Theory
Marxist conflict theory Society has evolved in a state of conflict between competing groups in society over material resources & institutionalised power. Dominant class uses laws to control other groups & maintain its command or hegemony (political leadership)
Merton’s Strain Theory Recognises that society’s goals (prosperity, achievement etc.) are only available to a limited few. The rest can only achieve goals through deviant means. Others adapt to the strain by retreating into alcoholism, drug addiction, suicide, vagrancy.
Feminist Theory Holds that criminality is associated with males. Males seek to maintain power in the gendered social system through the deployment of violence against women & children. Male control is through their access to power over social institutions such as the law. Powerless men are inclined to the cruder expressions of power which lead to their imprisonment.
Differential Opportunity theory Explains the patterns of crime likely to be exhibited by individuals in terms of the range of crime opportunities close to home. Different individuals display different modes of adjustment or adaptation to their particular social strains.
Subcultural Delinquency Theories Differential Association Theory Lifestyle & Routine Activities Theory Social Learning Theory Criminogenic factors in childhood
Subcultural Delinquency Theories Youngsters with problems especially to do with the home & school tend to associate with gangs & other groupings in which they can achieve some status. Through criminal activity, delinquent groups may provide an opportunity to achieve a sense of self-esteem.
Differential Association Theory Circumstances of upbringing determines their exposure to crime & pressure to commit crime. Hence, learning to be a criminal applies to different strata of society e.g. middle class might be exposed to fraud, tax evasion etc.
Lifestyle & Routine Activities Theory Argues that most crime is trivial & impulsive – thus elements of opportunism (Cohen & Felson, 1979)
Social Learning Theory Bandura (1973, 1983) Vicarious learning through observing other people. However, doesn’t explain under what circumstances criminal behaviour will or will not be learnt, so has limited explanatory power.
Criminogenic factors in childhood Glueck & Glueck, 1962, 1968) claim that the following are antecedents of antisocial & criminal behaviour: Punitive child-rearing practices & attitudes (strict discipline, corporal punishment, authoritarian attitudes) Lack of love or rejection Laxness (poor monitoring, lack of supervision) Family disruption (separation, divorce, instability, marital conflict) Deviant parental characteristics (criminality, mental health problems, substance abuse)
Criminogenic factors in childhood (cont) Yoshikawa (1995) argued that delinquency is product of interaction of multiplicity of factors: Neurological & biological factors Low cognitive ability Childhood history of antisocial behaviour Parental substance abuse Violent or socially disorganised neighbourhoods Media violence
Criminogenic factors in childhood (cont) Farrington (1996) claims that childhood conduct disorder and adult Antisocial Personality Disorder have the same aetiological precursors: Low family income Poor housing Large family size Convicted parents Harsh or erratic parental discipline Low intelligence Early school leaving
Protective factors from delinquency Farrington (1998) Personal Resources – resilient youngsters had better technical/spatial intelligence, flexible temperaments, approach-orientated, more positive self-esteem & active coping styles Social Resources – resilient youngsters were more satisfied with social support & experienced openness, autonomy & low conflict in their residential institution.
Personality Theories Eysenck’s biosocial theory emphasises link between biological factors, personality & crime. High extraversion, high psychoticism & high neuroticism
Biological Theories Genetics e.g. genetic make-up, brain activity, hormonal imbalances Evolutionary theory – inherited genes Body shape type: mesomorph, endomorph & ectomorph Evidence is contradictory and controversial
Attachment theory Based on John Bowlby’s work in 1950s Bonding & attachment in infancy & early childhood Internal Working Model Different types of attachment: Secure and Insecure Ainsworth (1970s)- classified insecure into Anxious-Avoidant, Anxious-Ambivalent & Disorganised
Isomorphism hypothesis Close relationship between the characteristics of abuse and its effect on the victim. Widom (1989) explored links between childhood abuse and adult criminality. Victims of physical abuse have highest rates of violent offences (16% of sample) Victims of neglect had similar levels of violence (13%) Controls (not abused as children) had 7% risk of violent offending in adulthood Hence, evidence is inconclusive & other factors need to be taken into consideration (see previous list re criminogenic factors)
Howitt (2006) summarises that there is little reliable evidence of the link between intelligence level and crime. Controversial topic as also linked to the debate about race and intelligence.
Constructions of crime Social Cultural Historical
Media coverage – recent Jimmy Saville case & other cases of paedophilia/ child sexual abuse/ abusers Extreme hostility & negative stigma towards paedophiles Recidivism comparatively low Megan’s law (USA) Megan abducted & murdered in 1994 Controversial & inconclusive research on role of pornography & sexual offending Internet paedophiles
paedophiles & child molesters Rapists (cover in lecture 4 on Tues 20 th Nov)
Classifications of child molesters (Groth & Birnbaum, 1978) Fixated Offenders Developmentally fixated on a permanent or temporary basis. Sexual interest in children rather than adults.
Regressed Offenders Men matured in their sexuality but return to an earlier level of psychosexual development. Psychosexual history shows primary interest in peer aged or adult individuals, rather than younger ones
How common is paedophilia? Unclear as depends on definition of sexual abuse used e.g. indecent assault, gross indecency, buggery, intercourse, rape. Non-paedophile sexual arousal – conflicting findings (Hall et al, 1995) Youthful offenders Graves et al (1996) in USA found that up to half of child sexual abuse carried out by persons under age of 21
Theories of Paedophilia Preconditions model Psychotherapeutic/ cognitive model Sexualisation model Pathways model
Preconditions model of child molestation Araji & Finkelhor (1985) 1) Emotional congruence with children (lack self- esteem, psychosocially immature, may have need to dominate) 2) Social arousal by children (child pornography, hormonal abnormalities/ imbalances) 3) Blockages preventing adult contact (lack effective social skills, problems relating to adult females, repressive sexual socialisation in childhood) 4) Disinhibition of norms against adult/child sex (offenders may be senile, alcohol may decrease inhibitions, incest-tolerant subculture)
Psychotherapeutic/ cognitive model Suggests 4 steps 1) Cognitive distortions/ distorted thinking e.g. having sex with a child is a good way of an adult teaching a child about sex. Beliefs about sexual nature of children. 2) Grooming (bribes of sweets, other treats, trips out, threats of violence) 3) Planning through fantasy 4) Denial – denying the consequences of their actions
Sexualisation model Howitt (1995) Experience of sexual abuse in childhood is a developmental process which can lead to paedophilia. Early sexual abuse – especially if extreme or repeated - possible sexual experience with peers- adolescent paedophile career – paedophile adult Controversial theory as women are more likely to be victims of childhood sexual, but less likely to be sexual offenders
Pathways model (Ward & Siegert, 2002) Multi-factorial model – combining elements of previous models/ theories Distal & Proximal factors Distal factors (predispositions e.g. genetic/ childhood development) Proximal factors (that might trigger predispositions e.g. environment, negative mood state)
Children as sexual objects Entitlement- to have their sexual needs met Dangerous world – children seen as reliable & trusting & gives offender comfort against danger Uncontrollable – claims not to be on control of own actions & blames outside factors e.g. drugs/ alcohol Nature of Harm – believes not all sexual activity is harmful & children can benefit from sexual activity with adults
Internet Paedophile offending Controversial topic – whether linked to contact paedophilia or not Robbins & Darlington (2003) 27,000 people in the world go onto child pornography sites every day. I million images of child sexual abuse in circulation. Internet chat rooms Sexual fantasy vs contact sexual acts with children
Risk Assessment Theories of crime Sexual Offending – paedophiles & child molestation
Murphy, W.D. & McGrath, R. (2008). Best Practices in Sex Offender Treatment, Prison Service Journal, issue 178, pgs 3-9. Strickland, S.M (2008). Female Sex Offenders: Exploring Issues of Personality, Trauma and Cognitive Distortions, J Interpers Violence 2008; 23; p. 474-489. Towl, G.J., Farrington., D.P., Crighton, D.A. & Hughes, G. (2008). Dictionary of Forensic Psychology, Devon, Willan Publishing. Ward. T. & Stewart, C. (2003). The relationship between human needs and criminogenic needs, Psychology, Crime & Law, September 2003, Vol. 9(3), pp. 219 /224
No Lecture on Mon 19 th Nov Rapists Treatment of Sexual offenders Violent Offending