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Soils Geography – Quiz 1 1)(a) [1] Give an important soil process that involves at least 3 of the 4 major components of soil? (b) [1] Briefly describe.

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Presentation on theme: "Soils Geography – Quiz 1 1)(a) [1] Give an important soil process that involves at least 3 of the 4 major components of soil? (b) [1] Briefly describe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soils Geography – Quiz 1 1)(a) [1] Give an important soil process that involves at least 3 of the 4 major components of soil? (b) [1] Briefly describe how these components are involved in this process. 2)(a) [1] Name a character of Metamorphic Rocks that determines its resistance to weathering (b)[1] Name a different character of Igneous Rocks that determines its resistance to weathering 3)While the weathering of mineral parent material is generally categorized into physical & chemical mechanisms, biology can play a crucial role. (a)[2] Name & briefly describe a Chemical weathering process mediated by Biology? (b)[2] … and for: a Physical weathering process mediated by Biology? 4)(a) [1] In addition to Parent Material, what are the other 4 of the 5 major factors that determine the type of soil found at a given location? (b)[1] Describe briefly an example of how one of these influences soil genesis.

2 Soils Geography – Quiz 2 1)[2] Differences in types and rates of what 4 processes lead to differences in soils, and very broadly to the Soil Orders? - just name them 2) (a) [0.5] Name one Soil Order whose development is primarily driven by a climate factor. (b)[1.5] Draw & label a characteristic soil profile for this order - Be sure to define any subscript horizon labels you use (c)[1.0] Briefly explain how climate conditions led to the profile? 3)For one of the following 3 subsurface diagnostic layers – albic, argillic, cambic: (a)[1.5] Briefly define the layer type - Be sure to say if it’s an illuviated or eluviated zone (& define the term) or neither (b)[0.5] Name one Soil Order that is characterized by this type of layer (c)[0.5] What is the generic horizon label (=alpha symbol) for this layer in a soil profile? 4)[2.5] Name the other Soil Orders not given in your answers to (2) & (3) - Bonus [+1]: You can give these as a mnemonic that you created for all orders.

3 Soils Geography – Quiz 3 1)(a) [0.5] By Munsell’s color system, which of his generic colors is / are present in a 2.5Y 2/3 soil? (b) [0.5] Is this a dark or light soil? How is that evident in the color code? (c) [0.5] Very roughly, what color is this soil in plain English? 2)[1] Name & very briefly describe the soil color that is used to delineate wetlands in the US. 3)[2] Explain briefly how clay particles disproportionately affect the properties of a soil? 4)(a) [2] Soil texture is only part of the story when it comes to soil dynamics – what other soil structural characteristics strongly influence a soil’s properties?  Name 4. (b) [1.5] Name 6 properties that are affected by any or all of these features? 5)[2] Macropores tend to dominate surface layers, micropores lower layers. Briefly describe one effect this has on soil profile development.

4 Soils Geography – Quiz 4 1)(a) [0.5] Capillary flow is caused by what properties of water? (b) [0.5] This flow causes soil water to rise higher but more slowly in what general category of soil texture? Briefly (≤1 sentence) explain why? 2)(a) [1] Name the four most important components of soil water potential ( ψ ). 3)(a) [0.75] For saturated soil water flow – i. Which ψ term is dominant? ii. What soil structural elements are most involved? iii. What benefits or negatives does this flow have for plant growth? (b) [0.75] For unsaturated soil water flow – also answer (i-iii) (c) [0.75] For vapor flow – also answer (i-iii) (d) [0.75] For soil-plant root water flow - Which ψ term/terms play a key role? 4)(a) [1] Write out an equation for Darcy’s Law. (b) [1.5] What does it tell us? Be sure to use & explain the terms ‘flux’ & ‘gradient.’ 5)[2.5] “The soil-plant-atmosphere continuum” is said to be a major component of the global hydrological cycle. (a) Why is this so (briefly)? (b) How does it work (briefly)? 6)Bonus [+1]: What is one important detail regarding the soils (or a soil) in (choose one):Europe, Africa, Latin America, Asia, or Australasia?

5 Soils Geography – Quiz 5 1) (a) [1] What is a soil association? (b) [1] What is a catena? Include how this is distinguished from a toposequence. 2) (a) [1] Write a simplified equation to represent the terrestrial water balance – include key terms (but you don’t need to be all inclusive). Be sure to define symbols. (b) [1] Write a simplified equation to represent the land surface energy balance. (c) [1] Explain briefly (1 sentence) how these 2 conservation equations are linked? (d) [1] Why getting soil moisture content correct is critical for climate modeling? 3) Hysteresis is the general term for when the behavior of a process depends on the sequence of events, such as for soil moisture on wetting vs drying. (a) [1] Explain briefly why such hystereses can create a problem for modeling soil processes in ecological models. 4) (a) [1] Briefly explain (in words, figure, or equation) – why do hilltops have a convex surface, for surfaces at steady state? (b) [1] According to Bob Anderson, the rounded crests of mountain ranges in the arid US West are in equilibrium with the long-term climate of what period? These surfaces are lowering at roughly what rate (ballpark)? (c) [1] Are the shapes of steep-walled valleys between these crests in equilibrium? Why?

6 Soils Geography – Quiz 6 1) (a) [1] Write out an equation for vertical heat flux within a soil profile (subsurface). Be sure to define terms. (b) [1] Which direction is heat flowing in the profile at point A? & B? Think twice! - use your equation to explain why. (c) [1] Name 2 soil properties that affect the rate of this heat flux. 2) (a) [1] Define “oxidation & reduction reactions.” (b) [1] Write out an example reaction for one of these (be sure to say which one). (c) [1] Name 2 processes through which soil O 2 becomes depleted, affecting the balance between oxidation & reduction. 3) (a) [1] Give an example of (i) a non-expansive clay & (ii) an expansive clay type. (give a mineral name) (b) [1] Compare & contrast their crystal structure (in terms of sheets, layers, etc.) (c) [1] Explain with some detail why one is expansive and the other not as a result of this structure. 4) (a) [1] What is the difference between alkaline & sodic soil? A B

7 Soils Geography – Quiz 7 1) [2] Name 4 soil properties that are affected by soil organic matter (SOM). 2) (a) [2] In SOM, what is the difference between Humus and Detritus? (define them) (b) [2] Do they affect soil fertility in the same way? Briefly explain. 3) [2] For Two of the following 5 groups of soil organisms, give an example and name how it affects either nutrient cycling or soil properties, or is part of the soil food web: (a) Macroflora(b) Macrofauna (c) Mesofauna(d) Microflora (e) Microfauna 4) [2] What is the importance of SOM Carbon:Nitrogen ratio to microbial & plant growth?

8 Soils Geography – Quiz 8 1) (a)[0.5] What process converts N 2 gas from the atmosphere to biologically-available forms? (b)[0.5] In the case that this is biologically mediated – what organisms are involved? (c)[0.5] And under what one critical micro-environmental condition? (d)[0.5] Give one way that the organisms involved create this condition? 2) (a)[2.5] Draw out the path of the soil N cycle from fresh organic N material (e.g., proteins) to various inorganic forms and back to plants. *Be sure to name each process. (b)[1] What benefits are gained by microbes involved in this pathway? 3) (a)[1] What ecological role do soil microbes play in the Colorado alpine in Winter? How is this expressed in the Spring? (b)[1] How can this occur in winter, a time usually considered to be outside the “growing season”? 4)[2.5] Why is it the case that soil phosphorus is kept from being highly available to plants at all pH levels, even when total soil P concentrations are high?

9 Soils Geography – Quiz 9 1) (a)[2] Briefly explain one way that land conversion alters soil processes in a manner that contributes to global or regional climate change. (b)[1] Name one way that climate change in turn affects these soil processes. 2) [1.5] Name 3 key sources of uncertainty that make projection of future climate change and in turn future soil dynamics difficult. 3)(a)[1.5] Define the term ‘Human Ecological Footprint’ (b)[Bonus +1] The global per capita footprint has been decreasing over the last few decades. What two changes might explain this? 4)(a)[1.5] Name 3 major ways in which we’re altering rates of N 2 fixation (N 2 to reactive N) (b)[1] Roughly, what is the ratio of these human-mediated inputs to natural N fixation? (c)[1.5] Name 3 environmental consequences of the human-altered global N cycle. 5)[Bonus +1] In an area with bedrock high in smectite (swelling clays), name one parent material feature that will make all the difference as to whether a house supported on pilings will be stable or torn apart.

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