Presentation on theme: "Soils Geography – Quiz 1 1)(a)  Give an important soil process that involves at least 3 of the 4 major components of soil? (b)  Briefly describe."— Presentation transcript:
Soils Geography – Quiz 1 1)(a)  Give an important soil process that involves at least 3 of the 4 major components of soil? (b)  Briefly describe how these components are involved in this process. 2)(a)  Name a character of Metamorphic Rocks that determines its resistance to weathering (b) Name a different character of Igneous Rocks that determines its resistance to weathering 3)While the weathering of mineral parent material is generally categorized into physical & chemical mechanisms, biology can play a crucial role. (a) Name & briefly describe a Chemical weathering process mediated by Biology? (b) … and for: a Physical weathering process mediated by Biology? 4)(a)  In addition to Parent Material, what are the other 4 of the 5 major factors that determine the type of soil found at a given location? (b) Describe briefly an example of how one of these influences soil genesis.
Soils Geography – Quiz 2 1) Differences in types and rates of what 4 processes lead to differences in soils, and very broadly to the Soil Orders? - just name them 2) (a) [0.5] Name one Soil Order whose development is primarily driven by a climate factor. (b)[1.5] Draw & label a characteristic soil profile for this order - Be sure to define any subscript horizon labels you use (c)[1.0] Briefly explain how climate conditions led to the profile? 3)For one of the following 3 subsurface diagnostic layers – albic, argillic, cambic: (a)[1.5] Briefly define the layer type - Be sure to say if it’s an illuviated or eluviated zone (& define the term) or neither (b)[0.5] Name one Soil Order that is characterized by this type of layer (c)[0.5] What is the generic horizon label (=alpha symbol) for this layer in a soil profile? 4)[2.5] Name the other Soil Orders not given in your answers to (2) & (3) - Bonus [+1]: You can give these as a mnemonic that you created for all orders.
Soils Geography – Quiz 3 1)(a) [0.5] By Munsell’s color system, which of his generic colors is / are present in a 2.5Y 2/3 soil? (b) [0.5] Is this a dark or light soil? How is that evident in the color code? (c) [0.5] Very roughly, what color is this soil in plain English? 2) Name & very briefly describe the soil color that is used to delineate wetlands in the US. 3) Explain briefly how clay particles disproportionately affect the properties of a soil? 4)(a)  Soil texture is only part of the story when it comes to soil dynamics – what other soil structural characteristics strongly influence a soil’s properties? Name 4. (b) [1.5] Name 6 properties that are affected by any or all of these features? 5) Macropores tend to dominate surface layers, micropores lower layers. Briefly describe one effect this has on soil profile development.
Soils Geography – Quiz 4 1)(a) [0.5] Capillary flow is caused by what properties of water? (b) [0.5] This flow causes soil water to rise higher but more slowly in what general category of soil texture? Briefly (≤1 sentence) explain why? 2)(a)  Name the four most important components of soil water potential ( ψ ). 3)(a) [0.75] For saturated soil water flow – i. Which ψ term is dominant? ii. What soil structural elements are most involved? iii. What benefits or negatives does this flow have for plant growth? (b) [0.75] For unsaturated soil water flow – also answer (i-iii) (c) [0.75] For vapor flow – also answer (i-iii) (d) [0.75] For soil-plant root water flow - Which ψ term/terms play a key role? 4)(a)  Write out an equation for Darcy’s Law. (b) [1.5] What does it tell us? Be sure to use & explain the terms ‘flux’ & ‘gradient.’ 5)[2.5] “The soil-plant-atmosphere continuum” is said to be a major component of the global hydrological cycle. (a) Why is this so (briefly)? (b) How does it work (briefly)? 6)Bonus [+1]: What is one important detail regarding the soils (or a soil) in (choose one):Europe, Africa, Latin America, Asia, or Australasia?
Soils Geography – Quiz 5 1) (a)  What is a soil association? (b)  What is a catena? Include how this is distinguished from a toposequence. 2) (a)  Write a simplified equation to represent the terrestrial water balance – include key terms (but you don’t need to be all inclusive). Be sure to define symbols. (b)  Write a simplified equation to represent the land surface energy balance. (c)  Explain briefly (1 sentence) how these 2 conservation equations are linked? (d)  Why getting soil moisture content correct is critical for climate modeling? 3) Hysteresis is the general term for when the behavior of a process depends on the sequence of events, such as for soil moisture on wetting vs drying. (a)  Explain briefly why such hystereses can create a problem for modeling soil processes in ecological models. 4) (a)  Briefly explain (in words, figure, or equation) – why do hilltops have a convex surface, for surfaces at steady state? (b)  According to Bob Anderson, the rounded crests of mountain ranges in the arid US West are in equilibrium with the long-term climate of what period? These surfaces are lowering at roughly what rate (ballpark)? (c)  Are the shapes of steep-walled valleys between these crests in equilibrium? Why?
Soils Geography – Quiz 6 1) (a)  Write out an equation for vertical heat flux within a soil profile (subsurface). Be sure to define terms. (b)  Which direction is heat flowing in the profile at point A? & B? Think twice! - use your equation to explain why. (c)  Name 2 soil properties that affect the rate of this heat flux. 2) (a)  Define “oxidation & reduction reactions.” (b)  Write out an example reaction for one of these (be sure to say which one). (c)  Name 2 processes through which soil O 2 becomes depleted, affecting the balance between oxidation & reduction. 3) (a)  Give an example of (i) a non-expansive clay & (ii) an expansive clay type. (give a mineral name) (b)  Compare & contrast their crystal structure (in terms of sheets, layers, etc.) (c)  Explain with some detail why one is expansive and the other not as a result of this structure. 4) (a)  What is the difference between alkaline & sodic soil? A B
Soils Geography – Quiz 7 1)  Name 4 soil properties that are affected by soil organic matter (SOM). 2) (a)  In SOM, what is the difference between Humus and Detritus? (define them) (b)  Do they affect soil fertility in the same way? Briefly explain. 3)  For Two of the following 5 groups of soil organisms, give an example and name how it affects either nutrient cycling or soil properties, or is part of the soil food web: (a) Macroflora(b) Macrofauna (c) Mesofauna(d) Microflora (e) Microfauna 4)  What is the importance of SOM Carbon:Nitrogen ratio to microbial & plant growth?
Soils Geography – Quiz 8 1) (a)[0.5] What process converts N 2 gas from the atmosphere to biologically-available forms? (b)[0.5] In the case that this is biologically mediated – what organisms are involved? (c)[0.5] And under what one critical micro-environmental condition? (d)[0.5] Give one way that the organisms involved create this condition? 2) (a)[2.5] Draw out the path of the soil N cycle from fresh organic N material (e.g., proteins) to various inorganic forms and back to plants. *Be sure to name each process. (b) What benefits are gained by microbes involved in this pathway? 3) (a) What ecological role do soil microbes play in the Colorado alpine in Winter? How is this expressed in the Spring? (b) How can this occur in winter, a time usually considered to be outside the “growing season”? 4)[2.5] Why is it the case that soil phosphorus is kept from being highly available to plants at all pH levels, even when total soil P concentrations are high?
Soils Geography – Quiz 9 1) (a) Briefly explain one way that land conversion alters soil processes in a manner that contributes to global or regional climate change. (b) Name one way that climate change in turn affects these soil processes. 2) [1.5] Name 3 key sources of uncertainty that make projection of future climate change and in turn future soil dynamics difficult. 3)(a)[1.5] Define the term ‘Human Ecological Footprint’ (b)[Bonus +1] The global per capita footprint has been decreasing over the last few decades. What two changes might explain this? 4)(a)[1.5] Name 3 major ways in which we’re altering rates of N 2 fixation (N 2 to reactive N) (b) Roughly, what is the ratio of these human-mediated inputs to natural N fixation? (c)[1.5] Name 3 environmental consequences of the human-altered global N cycle. 5)[Bonus +1] In an area with bedrock high in smectite (swelling clays), name one parent material feature that will make all the difference as to whether a house supported on pilings will be stable or torn apart.