2 Learning OutcomeAt the end of this section the students will be able to define soil and identify the major components of a soil
3 Natural ResourcesLiving – Animals and Plants (Renewable, Non Renewable)Non Living –Perpetual : Solar Energy, Wind, Tide, Flowing WaterRenewable : Fresh air, Soil, Fresh WaterNon Renewable : Fossil Fuels, Metallic Minerals, Non-metallic mineralsPerpetual = Permanent, Everlasting, long-lasting
4 Soils as a Natural Resource What is a soil?“The thin layer of soil covering the Earth’s surface represents the difference between survival and extinction of most terrestrial life”
5 Soil Medium for plant growth – food production Without soil, terrestrial ecosystems would not existForms relatively a thin mantle over the earthEarly civilizations – Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Indus, Yangtze, Hwang Ho – fertile soilsCivilizations declined due to decline and misuse of land and soil
6 Soils Crucial to land use planning Waste disposal Evaluation of natural hazardsFloodingLandslidesEarthquakesEvaluation building construction
7 A renewable resourceMan’s actions made it very fragile – highly susceptible to damage and misuseTakes hundreds to thousands of years to develop few centimeters of soilIf not managed properly, it will become a non-renewable resource
8 Soils definedNatural body that occurs on the land surface, occupies space, and is characterized by one or both of the following:Horizons or layersUpper limit is air or shallow water (less than 2.5 m) and Lower limit is either bedrock or the limit of biological activity (usually set at 2 m)
9 Soil Definition Soil Scientist: Solid earth material that can support rooted plant lifeUnconsolidated mineral matter on the surface of the earth that has been subjected to and influenced by genetic and environmental factors of: parent material, climate (moisture and temperature), macro and micro organisms, and topography, all acting over a period of time and producing a product soil that differs from the material from which it is derived in many physical chemical and biological properties and characteristics (SSSA)
10 Non Soil Areas Beaches Active pits Urban Lands Deep water habitats Bed rockAreas that do not support plant growth are not considered soil but are mapped as miscellaneous areas in soil survey reports.
11 Soil Components Soils consist of four major components: (1) mineral (or inorganic),(2) organic,(3) water, and(4) air.Relative proportions vary with soil type and climatic conditions.