Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Section 1 The Conquest of an Empire Anticipatory Set What is diplomacy? Resolving a dispute without using violence How did the Romans build."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 18 Section 1 The Conquest of an Empire
Anticipatory Set What is diplomacy? Resolving a dispute without using violence How did the Romans build an empire and at what cost? They used military to expand They used diplomacy to turn conquered people into allies Social unrest and civil wars
Standards S.S Identify the location of and the political and geographic reasons for the growth of Roman territories and expansion of the empire, including how the empire fostered economic growth through the use of currency and trade routes E-LA Reading Analyze text that uses the compare-and-contrast organizational pattern
Objective Students will learn about the expansion of Roman power throughout the Mediterranean region. They will also learn about how the rapid growth created problems for the Roman Republic.
Language of the Discipline Tactic Hannibal Spartacus
The Growth of the Republic (Input) The Romans overthrew their last king and formed an alliance with other people in Latium The alliance was called the Latin League 1 st Rome and its allies drove the Etruscans out of central Italy Then the Romans gradually took control of the rest of the Italian Peninsula They developed a strong military force, which would be the foundation on which they would build an empire The other foundation was a good diplomacy
The Roman Army (Input) Military service was expected of Rome’s male citizens At first military campaigns were short A campaign is a military operation with a specific goal, such as capture a city Unpaid citizen-soldiers left their farms to fight for a few weeks and then returned home As Rome began to expand, weeks of service became months This created a problem because farmers were away from their crops for too long The government began to pay their soldiers. As a result the military became a career
The Roman Army (Input) The basic unit of the Roman army was the legion A legion had 4,500 to 5,000 heavily armed citizens most served as infantry, or foot soldiers, but a legion also had officers and specialists (blacksmiths and engineers) Soldiers served for 20 to 25 years. After they were given land to settle on in newly conquered areas
The Roman Army (Input) At first Romans organized their infantry into long, unbroken lines This tactic worked well on flat plains, but not on hills. Long lines were hard to maintain A tactic is a method used to achieve a short-term goal, such as winning a battle The Romans solved this by dividing each legion into groups of soldiers called maniples with 100 soldiers On flat plains maniples could form solid battle lines, but in rough country they could fight on their own This flexibility gave the Roman legions an advantage over most enemies
The Roman Army (Input)
Roman Diplomacy (Input) The Romans combined military strength with diplomacy Once their conquered a region, they turned its people into allies They offered peace and many advantages of Roman citizenship to defeated groups In exchange, the Romans asked for loyalty and support They were asked to sign peace treaties and agreed to “have the same enemies as the Romans” They also agreed to provide troops Rome became the largest military force in the Mediterranean
The Punic Wars (Input) Rome’s military strength was tested in a series of wars with Carthage Carthage was a city found by Phoenician sea traders in North Africa The Romans called this conflict the Punic Wars “Punic” came from Poeni, the Latin word for Phoenician
The Punic Wars (Input)
The First Punic War (Input) Rome and Carthage were alike Both began as cities Both grew into empires While Rome was conquering Italy, Carthage gained control of Spain and islands in the Mediterranean Sea The 1 st Punic War began in 265 B.C. when Rome sent troops to Sicily (on the southern tip of Italy) The war ended more than 20 years later when Carthage agreed to turn over Sicily to the Romans
The Second Punic War (Input) Brilliant general Hannibal from Carthage, launched the Second Punic War He left Spain with an army of about 40,000 soldiers and about 40 war elephants to invade northern Italy to make them allies Hannibal’s army reached the Alps and into Italy with only a few elephants and about ½ his army Those who hated Roman rule joined him along the way Hannibal’s army marched south through Italy winnign battle after battle
The Second Punic War (Input) The Roman’s worst defeat came from a fort called Cannae in southern Italy Hannibal’s cavalry surrounded the Roman army, killing more than 45,000 men During this time the Roman’s were building a navy A Roman general named Scipio sailed to Carthage with a large army. Then, Hannibal returned home from Italy Hannibal’s soldiers served a disastrous defeat A year later, Carthage asked for peace and Rome agreed Romans remained suspicious of Carthage. Years after the war a senator Cato the Elder said “Carthage must be destroyed
The Third Punic War (Input) The Third Punic War began in 149 B.C. At this time Roman leaders vowed to end the power od Carthage forever Roman troops burned the city to the ground and sold its people to slavery Legends say that the Romans even plowed salt into the ground where Carthage had stood so nothing would ever grow there again The destruction of Carthage gave the Roman Republic control of the western Mediterranean Next it sent its armies toward Greece and Southwest Asia By 133 B.C. the Romans ruled most of the Mediterranean region
Growing Pains (Input) The growth of its empire brought great wealth and power to the city of Rome Not all Romans benefited equally from these gains Some Romans became rich and powerful while others sank into poverty and slavery The growing gap between these groups created serious problems for the Republic
Growing Pains (Input)
Social Unrest and Revolts (Input) As Rome’s empire expanded, food was brought into the city from distant territories As food supply increased, prices fell Low prices were disastrous for farmers; they could not pay off their small plots and had to sell them Large numbers of prisoners-of-war, now slaves, came to Italy Instead of hiring, landowners bought slaves Farmers ended up with no land and no jobs
Social Unrest and Revolts (Input) The farmers became the poor class, jobless Romans From time to time slaves organized revolts The most famous revolt was led by an enslaved soldier named Spartacus Spartacus organized an army of about 70,000 slaves who had escaped After some early victories, his army was crushed by Roman troops More than 6,000 slaves were executed for rebelling
Political Violence (Input) Unrest spread into politics A tribune named Tiberius Gracchus proposed breaking up large estates and dividing the land among the poor Before he could carry out his reform, Tiberius was murdered in a election riot along with 300 of his followers When his brother decided to promote the same reform, he was murdered also Reform efforts died with the Gracchus brothers While no one knew yet, Rome’s republican form of government was about to die as well.
Check for Understanding Please determine the BEST answer for the following question. Please write your answer on your white boards and wait for the teacher’s signal. On the teacher’s signal, hold up your white boards.
Checking for Understanding #1 Fill in the blank _______________ was the individual who launched the Second Punic War. Hannibal
Checking for Understanding #2 Answer the following question. What two things did the Romans combine together to conquer a region? The two things the Romans combined together to conquer a region was military strength and diplomacy
Checking for Understanding #3 Answer the following question. What growing gap created serious problems for the Roman Republic? The growing gap of the rich and the poor created serious problems for the Roman Republic
Guided Practice/Independent Practice Guided Practice Complete questions on the reading comprehension worksheet. Raise your hand and wait to get stamped. If you received an “R” go to the back table with Ms. Graham. Independent Practice Once you have been stamped moved to independent practice and complete numbers 3 and 4 on the reading comprehension worksheet. Homework Note-taking guide on the reverse side.