2Cotton is KingIn 1787 many in both south and the north thought that slavery was on its way out.Impact of Eli Whitney’s cotton gin.Short-staple cottonSeeds no longer removed by hand
3King CottonCotton becomes dominant cash crop in south, especially in the gulf bottom lands.Southern planters buy new land and slaves aggressivelyNorthern shippers make big profits shipping.Britain highly dependent on American cotton.Britain’s most important product in the 1850s was cotton cloth.About 75% of its cotton came from US.1/5th of Britain’s workers directly or indirectly got livelihood from cotton processing.
7The Planter “Aristocracy” Before the Civil War planter aristocracy controls government in the South.Planter Aristocracy at the top.1850, only 1733 families owned more than 100 slaves.Cream of the political and social leadership.Owned the lion’s share of the wealth.System retarded economic development.Why?
8Slaves Of The Slave System Problems with plantation system:Raped the landEconomy was monopolisticSystem was economically unstableLed to a dangerous dependence on one cropSouth lacked diversity
9Whites Without Slaves Majority Mostly subsistence farmers on poorer landBottom of group: “Poor white trash”, “rednecks”, “crackers”Had no stake in the slave economy, but were some of the strongest supporters of the systemAspire to move “up” in society by owning slavesEconomic: feared competition with free blacksMountain whites: very poor, resented slavery, “Hillbillies”
10Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters By 1860 there were about 250,000 free blacksSocieties’ attitude toward them.Risk of being high-jacked back into slavery.Attitude in the North
11Plantation Slavery 4 Mill. black slaves Basement of southern society. Numbers had quadrupled since 1800.Important source of wealthStagnated the southern economy.Slave population moved south as prime cotton land shifted to the Deep South.Slave population in states.
13Slave Life Not much fun Hard work, ignorance and oppression No political or legal rights.Floggings commonMany places illegal to teach them to read.Slave-breakers.By 1860 most slaves concentrated in the Deep South.
14Slave-Owning Population (1850) Below the 1733 leading families were the less wealthy slave owners. 345,000 families representing 1.7 Mill people in 1850.Over 2/3 owned fewer than 10 slaves.Maj. of whites didn’t own slaves (but supported the “peculiar institution”)Aspire to move up by owning slavesFeared economic competition with free blacks
16THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT 1820s: Abolitionist movement to free African Americans from slavery aroseLeader was a white radical named William Lloyd GarrisonAbolitionists called for immediate emancipation of all slaves
17Antislavery Movement Wide range of opponents of slavery Moderates who proposed the gradual abolitionRadicals who urged immediate abolition and freeing slaves without compensating ownersThe Second Great Awakening encouraged many northerners to view slavery as a sin.This view limited the possibilities for compromisePromoted the radical view
18A. Expectations of Slavery’s Demise: The Declaration of Independence, Gradual Emancipation, No More Slave Imports (1807)1780 Pennsylvania Law:“That all Persons, as well Negroes, and Mulattos, as others, who shall be born within this State, from and after the Passing of this Act, shall not be deemed and considered as Servants for Life or Slaves;”“Every Negroe and Mulatto Child born within this State who have been born a Servant for Years or life or a Slave, shall be deemed to be and shall be the Servant of such person until such Child shall attain unto the Age of twenty eight Years.”
19Early Abolition Early abolitionism. Quakers. American Colonization Society (1817)Liberia freed blacks transported to AfricaAppealed to moderates & politiciansLarge numbers of whites with racist attitudes hoped to remove blacks from society altogether (more on this later)
20The Growth of the Anti-Slavery Movement (1830s) A. The 2nd Great Awakening & Slavery as Sin
21Growth of Abolition In the 1830s abolitionist turned into a crusade. Theodore Dwight Weld—early Abolitionist preacher.Lyman Beecher, head of Lane Theological Seminary, hotbed of early abolitionism. Very influential and father ofHarriet Beecher StoweHenry Ward BeecherCatherine Beecher
22B. Organizing Against Slavery: 1. With Words: William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS)
23Radical Abolition 1831 William Lloyd Garrison burst onto the scene. Antislavery = moral crusade.Published militant abolitionist magazine: The Liberator.Founded the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1833.
24Black Abolitionists Sojourner Truth David Walker—Militant. Frederick DouglasGreatest of the Black abolitionistsProtégé of GarrisonFrederick Douglas
25FREDERICK DOUGLASS: AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADER Freed slave, Frederick Douglass escaped from bondage and became an eloquent abolitionist (critic of slavery) leaderHe began an anti-slavery newspaper called, Northstar – named after the star that guided runaway slaves to freedom
26Antislavery Movement Black Abolitionists Violent Abolitionists Escaped slaves and free blacksFrederick DouglasOthers organized the “underground railway” (safe houses) to guide fugitive slaves to free territory in the North or to Canada, where slavery was prohibited.Violent AbolitionistsUrged slaves to revolt against their “masters”Nat Turner’s RebellionEnded any antislavery discussion in the South
28Slave RebellionsWere slave rebellions, but never successful. Often informed upon by other slaves.1800 Gabriel in RichmondDenmark Vesey, Charleston in 1822.Most famous was rebellion by Nat Turner in Va. in 1831.Significance
29Turner plans his rebellion TURNER’S REBELLIONThe vast majority of African-Americans were enslaved in the South and were subjected to constant degradationSome rebelled against their conditionMost famous revolt was led by Virginia slave Nat TurnerTurner led 50 followers in a revolt killing 60 whites – he was caught and executedTurner plans his rebellion
30Antislavery Movement Liberty Party Moderates Attempt to use political action to end slavery
311840 Presidential candidate Party Popular vote Electoral vote Count PctWilliam H. HarrisonWhig1,275,39052.9%234Martin Van BurenDemocrat1,128,85446.8%60James BirneyLiberty6,7970.3%
32The South Lashes Back Before 1830: More anti-slavery societies in south than northSoutherners openly debated merits of slavery.After 1830 debate in South ends and many southerners defend as positive good. What changed?Nat Turners rebellion in 1831Nullification CrisisReaction to Northern criticismSouthern preachers arguing that slavery supported by Bible
33IV. Slaveowners Defend Slavery With Words:-- The bible--Ancient tradition-- Race/racism-- “Wage Slavery” in the north
38The Abolitionist Impact In The North Abolitionists were not particularly popular in the North for some time. Why?North had heavy stake in the cotton of the south.Textile mills relied on southern cotton.Many northerners feared political controversy.Many northern politicians carefully distanced themselves from the abolitionists.Abolitionists harrassedYet, by 1850 abolitionism had gained strength and taken root as a popular cause.
40Charles Mackay, late 1850s“We shall not make the black man a slave … buy him or sell him; but we shall not associate with him. He shall be free to live and to thrive, if he can … pay taxes … but … not … to dine and drink at our board – to share with us … the jury box … to plead in our courts – to represent us in the legislature – to attend us at the bed of sickness and pain – to mingle with us in the concert-room, the lecture-room, the theatre, or the church, or to marry with our daughters. We are of another race, and he is inferior. Let him know his place – and keep it.”