2Types of Government Democracy- Rule by the people Monarchy- rule by a kingOligarchy- rule by a groupTheocracy- rule by religious leadersDespotism or Dictatorship- rule by someone who seized the government by force
3Right or Left Communism Socialism Welfare Liberalism Classical liberalism Libertarian
4What is the role of Government What should the balance be between individual freedom, our individual autonomy and social control?Often we assume we have many rights? What is the basis for freedom?Do all of our rights come from the Government?
5Individualism vs. Collectivism Should the individual’s interest be put ahead of the group?Or should the group or (society’s) interest come first.
6Plato’s (Totalitarian) Republic In Plato’s Ideal State each person has an assigned role- given to them by the King.Plato believes that society will benefit because everyone will be working towards the collective good of the whole society.
7Natural Rights Theorist Thomas HobbesJohn LockeJean Jacques Rousseau
8Natural or Human RightNatural rights are rights we have without a government.They are rights that we have in virtue of our humanity.Natural rights are akin to human rights. When you hear people discussing human rights abuses, they mean abuses of certain basic rights. There is no clear philosophical basis for these rights.
9Natural vs. Positive Rights Natural rights are basic, negative rights. Rights that we have, and other must simply respect and not violate.Positive Rights come from Government- by legislation. The government passes an act of positive legislation that extends to us a certain right- to vote, drink, or drive…
10Positive RightsThe government makes a law, and a right is created. Dogs have positive rights, trees have positive rights, people have positive rights too.
12State of NatureMankind was born into the state of nature. Life in the state of nature is "short nasty and brutish".
13Might = RightThere are no arts or letters only a war of all against all. In this state men all have an equal right to everything.Right is equal to freedom, the freedom, to do what he would, and against whom he thought fit, and to possess, use and enjoy all that he would or could get.
15Two Laws of NatureHobbes says that in the State of Nature mankind knows by reason two laws of nature, they are1)"seek peace and follow it" and2), "be willing to lay down his right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow against himself."“Golden Rule”
16Hobbes’ Egoism Hobbes is an Ethical Egoist. Hobbes is a Psychological Egoist.Our egoism leads us to give up our right to everything and to form a social contract.
17Form a Government The best way to protect your RIGHT to life. All people give up our rights, to the king.King determines morality.NO IMMORAL LAWS!
18Immoral to Revolt!Hobbes- writing in defense of the King, denies that one can legitimately revolt against the government.Once you leave the state of nature you have a duty to keep your promise and obey the king.
19InconsistentHobbes originally claims that Egoism is what leads us out of the state of nature.Once we enter into the government; morality is determined by the king.He is a royal command theorist- the right action is whatever the king says.Egoism is not consistent with out “duty” to the king.
21Kinder, Gentler state of Nature Locke’s conception of the state of nature differs from Hobbes. He says that it is , "Men living together according to reason, without a common superior on Earth with authority to judge between them is properly the state of nature".
22John Locke: 3 Natural Rights Natural rights are akin to human rights.LIFELIBERTYPROPERTYLabor theory of property:If you work for something, and it is not already owned by someone, then you acquire ownership of it.
23ProtectionLocke, like Hobbes, claims that we leave the state of nature for protection!It is the best way to protect our right(s).
24Locke the RadicalLocke, unlike Hobbes, says people have the right to revolt!If the government is not protecting our natural rights, then the people have a right to form a new, better government.
26True State of NatureRousseau claims that both Hobbes and Locke mischaracterize the state of nature.Natural ManCivil Man
27Natural ManNatural man is motivated by love of self, only cares about self preservation. Natural man is not motivated by greed or love of material goods.
28Civil ManMankind moves from the state of nature to civilization once we move from self preservation towards the goal of acquiring property and wealth.
29Corrupted!!!At this point mankind becomes motivated by greed and corrupted by envy.
30Everywhere we are in chains “Man is born free, but every where we are in chains….”He thinks that we can only be truly free when we are part of a direct democracy.
31General Will Vs. Will of All General will, is the opinion people will reach, if they consider a matter objectively and determine what is best for society as a whole.Will of All, is the will of the majority, considering only their own self interest.
32Adam SmithAdam Smith Argued that the government should not interfere in the market place.The idea of a Laissez-faire approach to regulation has dominated the American economic landscape for hundreds of years.
33John Stuart MillIn his essay "On Liberty" he argues that the limiting principle against positive legislations of government is Harm.Libertarians argue for a limited government, one that has as its sole purpose, protection.
34Harriet TaylorWas the wife of Mill. She wrote and co wrote many essays under his name, including An Essay on Toleration and Non-conformity.
35Mill as a LibertarianThe government must not extent into the private affairs of its citizens except to stop harm to others.The only legitimate laws according to Mill are laws that protect you from others, but not from yourself.Limitations: For the HP to apply, the agent in question must be an adult, fully in control of his or her faculties.
36John HospersBorn in a small town near Des Moines, Iowa, Hospers grew up speaking Dutch as a first language. He went on to earn a Master's degree in literature from the University of Iowa and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Columbia University.
373 types of laws that government enacts: John Hospers:1) laws protecting you from yourself,2) laws protecting you from others and3) laws making you help others.Only the second class of laws are legitimate. The other two are the result of government superseding its bounds.
38Georg Hegel Hegel views man as the measure of his actions. We are free when we act from our own will. Our will expresses itself thru action.We express our freedom in relation to material objects, by acquiring them, using them and exchanging them for other goods or services.
39ObligationsWhen we form a contract we agree to exchange some good for some other good or service. If either party engages in fraud or violence then he is acting wrongly.Our individual will must be brought into allinement with the universal will of all. This is similar to Rousseau’s general will.
40Family and StateObjective will. When one enters a family then your own interest is tempered by the interest of other members of the family. You may sacrifice what is best for you to benefit other family members.In the same way citizens of a state must do the same thing, to help others in the society.
41Karl MarxCommunist-Sometimes known as a Marxist.
42Communism shall sweep the World Karl Marx employs a historical/ hypothetical approach to argue that the communist revolution is coming. He employs a dialectical analysis of the historical rise and transition of the state. He argues that because of the exploitation of the workers by the capitalist will lead to a revolution of the workers and to eventually communism taking hold.
43Karl Marx’s CommunismUnder Marx’s conception of communism, it is not fair that the owners of business make all them money and profit, when the workers are the ones- actually doing the work!He believes in an egalitarian society, where everyone is equal is social status.This type of communism was never realized in USSR or in China.