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Spatial Impacts of Multimodal Corridor Development in Gateway Areas: Italy-Greece-Turkey Conference, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki,

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Presentation on theme: "Spatial Impacts of Multimodal Corridor Development in Gateway Areas: Italy-Greece-Turkey Conference, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spatial Impacts of Multimodal Corridor Development in Gateway Areas: Italy-Greece-Turkey Conference, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, December Maritime Gateways as Paradigms of Globalization Jean-Paul Rodrigue Associate Professor, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, New York, USA Paper available at:

2 Elements of the Maritime / Land Interface Port System Foreland (Shipping Network) RoadRailCoastal / Fluvial Hinterland (FDC) Corridors and Hubs Gateways Maritime Freight Distribution Inland Freight Distribution

3 Gateways and Hubs as Central and Intermediate Locations ■Gateways & hubs Nodes offering an accessibility to a large system of circulation. Obligatory (semi) points of passage. Convergence of transport corridors. Centrality and intermediacy. ■Gateways Favorable physical location. Intermodal and stable in time. ■Hubs Transmodal and subject to change. Commercial decisions. Delays vs. frequency of services. Gateway Intermodal Hub Transmodal

4 Changes in the Global Trade Environment Immobile Factors of Production Mobility of Factors of Production Global Production Networks Bulk point-to-point Container shipping Country A Country B Global Market Commodity chain Commodity Market Before 1970s 1970s – 1990s 1990s onward

5 The Emergence of Gateways Supply Chain Flows Market Transport Chain Parts and raw materials Manufacturing and assembly Distribution Market Stage Bulk shipping Unit shipping High volumes Low frequency Low volumes High frequency LTL shipping Average volumes High frequency Network GPN Commodity Gateway Manufacturing Gateway Commercial Gateway

6 Four Paradigms for Gateways Trimodal Container Terminal, Willebroek, Belgium Locational Infrastructural Transport Logistical Shipper Customer Valorization Demand Pull Functional Spatial

7 First Paradigm: Locations Container Ports Global Port Operators  Container yard, Port of Yantian, China

8 Traffic at the 50 Largest Container Ports, 2005

9 Major Port Holdings, 2007

10 The Strategies of Port Operators Financial Assets Large financial assets and the capacity to tap global financial markets. Terminals as equity generating returns. Managerial Expertise Experience in the management of containerized operations. IT and compliance with a variety of procedures. Gateway Access Establishing hinterland access. Creation of a “stronghold”. Provides a stable flow of containerized shipments. Development of related inland logistics activities. Leverage Negotiate with maritime shippers and inland freight transport companies favorable conditions. Some are subdiaries of maritime shipping companies. Traffic Capture Capture and maintain traffic for their terminals. Global Perspective Comprehensive view of the state of the industry. Anticipate developments and opportunities.

11 Commodity Chain (Channels) Following a “Value Capture” Strategy Port Holding Port Authority Maritime Services Inland Services Port Services Horizontal Integration / VerticalVertical Integration Maritime Shipping Port Terminal Operations Inland Modes and Terminals Distribution Centers 11

12 Second Paradigm: Infrastructures Containerization Freight Corridors  Container waiting to be loaded, Shenzhen, China

13 Paradigm Shifts in Containerization Containerization of Maritime Transport Systems Container port Containerization of Inland Transport Systems Intermodal terminal Pendulum Services Intermodal and Transmodal Operations Corridor

14 Types and Functions of Freight Corridors TypeFunctionExamples Short distance (within a gateway / hub) Modal shift, improved capacity and throughput. Switch carrying, Alameda, “Agile Port”, Panama Hinterland access (between a gateway and its vicinity) Expand market area, reduce distribution costs & congestion Rail shuttles, Landbridge (between gateways) Long distance container flows, continuity of global commodity chains North American landbridge Circum-hemispheric (between gateways with a maritime segment) Integrated global transport chains Northern East-West Corridor, Circum- equatorial beltway

15 Gateways and Hinterland Effect Efficient Inland Freight Distribution Inefficient Inland Freight Distribution Pacific Asia North American West Coast SEZ Corridor

16 Container Transport Costs from Inland China to US West Coast ($US per TEU)

17 Container Traffic at Major Transpacific Container Ports: Mirror Images? Tokaido Yellow Sea Rim Sunan Delta Pearl River Delta Taiwan / Fujian Singapore San Pedro Bay San Francisco Bay Puget Sound Prince Rupert Ensenada

18 Hinterland Setting and Major Economic Regions North AmericaWestern EuropeEast and Southeast Asia Coastal concentration Landbridge connections Inland concentration Coastal gateways Coastal concentration Low hinterland access Hinterland intensity Freight Corridor hierarchy Gateway hierarchy

19 Main North American Trade Corridors and Metropolitan Freight Centers

20 Third Paradigm: Transportation (Flows) Imbalanced Trade Flows Imbalanced Container Flows Maritime Shipping Networks APL Distribution Center, Shenzhen, China 

21 World’s 10 Largest Exporters and Importers, 2006

22 Balance of Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes,

23 Major US Modal Gateways, 2004

24 Liner Shipping Networks: Variety of Scales and Services Conventional liner / break bulk services Mainline services Feeder services First order network Second order network Third order network Regional Port System

25 Three Major Pendulum Routes Serviced by OOCL, 2006

26 Circum Hemispheric Rings of Circulation North American Landbridge Eurasian Landbridge Circum-Equatorial Maritime Highway Arctic Routes Atlantic Connector Pacific Connector Algeciras Gioia Tauro Jeddah Colombo Singapore Kingston

27 Chassis waiting to be picked, Corwith Rail Yard, Chicago Fourth Paradigm: Logistics Production / Distribution Embeddedness Gateways and Logistics 

28 Level of Embeddedness of Production and Distribution Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market PureStandardizationSegmentedStandardization Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market CustomizedStandardization Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market TailoredCustomization Design Parts Assembly Distribution Market Pure Customization Processing without order Shipment to orderAssembly to orderManufacturing to order Design to order Embeddedness Push (expectation) Pull (response)

29 Embedding Gateways and Logistics Gateway Inland Terminal DistributionCenter Capacity Frequency Corridor Customer “Last Mile” Segment GLOBAL HINTERLAND REGIONALLOCAL Shipping Network MassificationAtomization

30 Overcoming Uncertainty in Freight Distribution M1 M2 Geographical Integration Functional Integration p(T) T0T0 TaTa Efficient transport systems Supply chain management p(T a )

31 The Emergence of Gateway Regions Phase 1: Scattered ports Phase 2: Penetration and hinterland capture Phase 3: Interconnection & concentration Phase 4: Centralization Phase 5: Decentralization and insertion of ‘offshore’ hub Phase 6: Regionalization Load centerInterior centre Regional load centre network (Gateway Region) Freight corridor LAND SEA Deepsea liner services Shortsea/feeder services

32 Modal Shift and Freight Diversion within Gateway Regions Port A B Road Rail

33 Conclusion: Gateways as Paradigms of Globalization Locational Infrastructural Transport Logistical Shipper Customer Value Capture Corridors Network Structures Embededness Gateways

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