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GEOG 80 Transport Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 1 – Transportation and.

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Presentation on theme: "GEOG 80 Transport Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 1 – Transportation and."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOG 80 Transport Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 1 – Transportation and Geography A.What is Transport Geography? B.Transportation and Space C.The Geography of Transportation Networks

2 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue C – THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS 1. Transport Networks 2. The Topology and Typology of Networks 3. Networks and Space

3 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Transport Networks ■Transport network Framework of routes between locations: A permanent track (e.g. roads, rail and canals). A scheduled service (e.g. airline, public transit, train). Various types of links between points along which movement can take place. Creates accessibility. ■Network structure Ranges from centripetal to centrifugal. Express inequalities between places. Express transport rates. Integration processes impacted on the structure and flows of transportation networks.

4 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Centrifugal and Centripetal Networks Centrifugal Centripetal

5 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Transport Hub Point-to-Point Hub-and-Spoke Hub

6 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Detour Level in a Hub-and-Spoke Network A B C D 1

7 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Cost, Revenue and Level of Network Coverage Cost: 10 Revenue: 15 Benefit: 5 A Cost: 12 Revenue: 18 Benefit: 6 B Cost: 14 Revenue: 25 Benefit: 11 C Cost: 19 Revenue: 29 Benefit: 10 D

8 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Impacts of Integration Processes on Networks and Flows Network Flows Before Integration After Integration International border

9 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Topology and Typology of Networks ■Topology The arrangement and connectivity of a network. Each network has a specific topology ■Linear networks: Only one link between each node pairs. Each node has a maximum of two links. ■Tree networks: Converging to one node from a hierarchy of other nodes. Linear Tree

10 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Topology and Typology of Networks ■Mesh networks: At least two nodes with two or more links between them. ■Hub-and-spoke networks: Peripheral nodes (spokes) are connected to a central node; the hub. Mesh Hub-and-Spoke

11 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Network Strategies to Service a Set of Locations ABC D EF

12 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Mode of Territorial Occupation by Transport Networks Clearly Defined Vaguely Defined Without Definition Road Rail Air corridor Maritime corridor Cellular coverage Overlap “No service” Reserved space for transport infrastructure. Ownership clearly established. Road, canal and railway networks. Shared space. Not the object of any particular ownership, only rights of way. Air and maritime transportation networks. Space has no tangible meaning, except for as a distance. Little control and ownership. Common usage agreements. Radio, television and cellular networks.

13 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Networks and Space ■Shaping accessibility The territory is a topological space having two or three dimensions, depending on the transport mode considered. Flows and infrastructures are linear; having one dimension. Accessibility is the transposition of a network over space. Transport Network Space Accessibility

14 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Absolute and Relative Distance in a Network 10 km 30 minutes

15 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Spatial Continuity by Transportation Mode UbiquityFractionalizationInstantaneity Automobile High (road coverage the most extensive) None (1 passenger = 1 movement) High (available on demand) Transit Average (within metropolitan areas) Average (bus loads or train loads) Average to high (fixed high frequency schedules) Air transport Limited to airports (common) Average (plane loads from 50 to 500 passengers) Average (fixed schedules and connections) Maritime Limited to ports (rare)High (ship loads, reinforced by economies of scale) Low (fixed schedules and connections) Rail Limited to rail terminals (common) Average (train loads)Average (fixed schedule) Pipeline Limited to networkLow (continuous flow)High (continuous flow)

16 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Networks and Spatial Continuity AB C

17 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Networks as Tools of Spatial Cohesion (Control) PeriodEmerging NetworkOutcome Pre-colonialFluvial, coastal and roadEmpire building Colonial EraMaritimeTrade, exploitation and political control 19 th CenturyCanal and railNation building, commerce and political control 20 th CenturyHighways and airNational and transnational integration 21 st CenturyTelecommunicationGlobal supply chains


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