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Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Eggs as a Functional Emulsifier Shelly McKee, Auburn University American Egg Board.

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Presentation on theme: "Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Eggs as a Functional Emulsifier Shelly McKee, Auburn University American Egg Board."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Eggs as a Functional Emulsifier Shelly McKee, Auburn University American Egg Board

2 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Egg Industry Structure Producers Shell Egg Grading Further Processors Bakery Supply Food ManufacturersFood Brokers End Users 1.2

3 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! The design and construction of EGG PROCESSING EQUIPMENT meets E-3-A or 3-A Sanitary Standards HOLDING Refrigerated no longer than 7 to 10 days BREAKING and separating yolks, whites, shells – Filtered – Mixed – Chilled REFRIGERATED LIQUID EGG PRODUCTS FROZEN EGG PRODUCTS DRIED EGG PRODUCTS Egg Products Processing Overview PASTEURIZATION PACKAGING 1.3

4 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Egg Structure 1.5 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Shell Yolk Latebra Germinal Disc Vitelline (Yolk) Membrane Chalazae Air Cell Shell Membranes Chalazae Chalaziferous Layer Thin Albumen (White) Thick Albumen (White)

5 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Approximately 50% water, 17% protein (mainly ovovitellin), 33% lipids (mainly triglycerides, lecithin [phospholipids] and cholesterol) Minerals: iron, phosphorus, calcium, manganese, iodine, copper and zinc Vitamins A and D, B 12, E, biotin, choline, folic acid, inositol, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine and thiamin Xanthophyll: main yellow pigment Egg Yolk Composition 50% 33% 17% 2.4

6 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Triglycerides (Neutral Fats) Oleic Palmitic Linoleic Stearic Other 27% 65.5% 11% 50% 6% Phospholipids 28.3% Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine)73% Cephalin (phosphatidylethanolamine) 15% lysophosphatidlycholine 5.8% sphingomyelin 2.5% lysophosphatidylethanolamine 2.1% plasmalogen 0.9% inositol phospholipid 0.6% Egg Yolk Composition

7 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Emulsification The phospholipids, lipoproteins and proteins found in egg yolks are surface active agents that enable the formation of emulsions from immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Egg yolks can be used to fortify whole egg blends to increase emulsifying action No essential differences are found in emulsifying properties of dried whole egg and yolk and fresh liquid eggs 4.6

8 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Emulsions/Surface activity- a stable mixture of two immiscible liquid phases, one which is dispersed in the other Mayonnaise

9 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Emulsification Applications Mayonnaise Hollandaise sauce Salad dressings Baked goods Mechanisms Egg emulsifying properties come from the yolk

10 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Phospholipids-lecithin Lipoproteins Proteins- having hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions Emulsifiers in the egg yolk

11 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Emulsions/Surface activity 3 Components necessary for an oil-in-water emulsion a) oil b) water c) interface, proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins Oil Proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins Water

12 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Good Stable Emulsion Should be viscous to hold suspended ingredients in place Droplets dispersed (oil or water) should be small enough to remain in suspension and should be evenly distributed throughout the matrix

13 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Factors affecting emulsions Viscosity (Stability over time) Amount of emulsifier (Formation and Stability) ratio of emulsifier/fat/water Additives 0.05% sodium-2-lactylate increases emulsion stability Emulsions

14 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Mayonnaise is made by combining lemon juice or vinegar with egg yolks. Eggs (containing the emulsifier lecithin) bind the ingredients together and prevent separation. Adding oil too quickly (or insufficient, rapid whisking) will keep the two liquids from combining (emulsifying). As the sauce begins to thicken, oil can be added more rapidly. Seasonings are whisked in after all of the oil has been added.

15 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Long shelf life (1 year), functionality, variety blends

16 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! FROZEN EGG PRODUCTS Frozen yolk has 10 % salt or sugar added to prevent irreversible protein gelation. Result is a smooth creamy, viscous yolk.

17 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Egg Products Sanovo Foods produces enzyme-modified product Heat-stable egg yolk. Uses enzymes to degrade phospholipids phospholipids which account for 7-8% of the egg yolk. The enzyme converts a large part of the lecithin in the egg yolk into lysolecithin, which has much better emulsifying properties.

18 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Made with liquid frozen salted egg yolk Made with liquid frozen whole egg Made with liquid frozen sugared egg yolk

19 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Some common applications of emulsifiers Bread It is possible to make bread without emulsifiers but the result is often dry, low in volume and easily stales. As little as 0.5% emulsifier added to the dough is enough to achieve an enhanced volume, a softer crumb structure and a longer shelf-life. Chocolate All chocolate products contain 0.5% of lecithin. These emulsifiers are added to provide the right consistency of the chocolate, so it can be molded into plates of chocolate, chocolate bars etc.

20 Nature’s Most Perfect Food – The Egg! Some common applications of emulsifiers Ice-cream Ice-cream: both a foam and an emulsion it contains ice crystals and an unfrozen aqueous mix. Emulsifiers are added during the freezing process, to promote a smoother texture and ensure the ice- cream does not melt rapidly after serving. They also improve freeze-thaw stability. All this applies to other desserts such as sorbet, milkshake, frozen mousse and frozen yogurt as well.


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