2 THE PARTS OF THE EGGSchematic of a chicken egg: 1.Eggshell 2. Outer membrane 3. Inner membrane 4. Chalaza 5. Exterior albumen 6. Middle albumen 7. Vitelline membrane 8. Nucleus of pander 9. Germinal disc (nucleus) 10. Yellow yolk 11. White yolk 12. Internal albumen 13. Chalaza 14. Air cell 15. Cuticula
3 THE PARTS OF THE EGGThe three main components of the egg, however are the shell, the white and the yolkShell – 95% calcium carbonate 5% miscellaneous componentsWhites: 87.6% water, protein 10.9%, vitamins and minerals 1.5% (Adds softness & fluffiness)The Yolk: 51.1% water, 16% protein, 30.6% fat, 2.3% vitamin & mineral (Thickness & density)
4 The ShellApart from being the structure that holds the egg together, the shell has no uses in baking.
5 The WhiteThe whites function in baking is mostly structural (the protein in the egg white when put under duress by either heating it or whipping it unravels
6 When there are many unbundled proteins sharing the same area they then attach to each other to form a network of bonded proteinsIf egg white is added directly without whipping the bonds will have water pockets which will harden during the process of baking forming a foundational structure to your baked goods.If egg whites are whipped before added there will be air pockets trapped within the network which because of the laws of physics will expand when heated and the egg white will then be acting as a leavening agent. (e.g. Angel food cake gets almost all of its form from whipped egg whites)
7 Whipped egg, however loses its bonding strength with the presence of other substances and therefore agents like copper (mix in a copper bowl), or acidic compounds (lemon juice, vinegar, cream of tartar)and to glaze pastries and breads. Egg whites are used to make meringues
8 The YolkThe high fat content in the yolk contributes to its density as well as it is a flavour contributorBecause of the high fat content coagulation usually is smother than egg whites which is why yolks are used as a thickening agent for things that are meant to be smooth e.g. Custards
9 Lecithin (emulsifying phospholipids- part of the fat cell membrane) Attracts water molecules on one ends and repels water attaching to oils on the other end, it is a major structural component in hollandaise sauces e.g. Mayonnaise
10 THE WHOLE EGGThe whole egg , when used in baking adds structural integrity as well as depth of flavour to a recipe
11 GLAZINGEgg yolk, egg white, or whole egg is use to brushed over pastries, bread, to produce a golden brown shiny glaze during baking. An egg wash glaze is one of the most common glazes for breads, resulting in a golden crust and because of its adhesive properties, allows other toppings to easily adhere to the surface of the dough.
12 Very Large or Extra-Large (XL) Grading of Egg SizesModern Sizes (USA)SizeMass per eggCooking Yield (Volume)]JumboGreater than 2.5 oz. or 71 gVery Large or Extra-Large (XL)Greater than 2.25 oz. or 64 g56 mL (4 tbspLarge (L)Greater than 2 oz. or 57 g46 mL (3.25 tbsp)Medium (M)Greater than 1.75 oz. or 50 g43 mL (3 tbsp)Small (S)Greater than 1.5 oz. or 43 gPeeweeGreater than 1.25 oz. or 35 g
13 FYI SubstitutesFor those who do not consume eggs, alternatives used in baking include other rising agents or binding materials, such as ground flax seeds or potato starch flour. Tofu can also act as a partial binding agent, since it is high in lecithin due to its soy content. Applesauce can be used, as well as arrowroot and banana. Extracted soybean lecithin, in turn, is often used in packaged foods as an inexpensive substitute for egg-derived lecithin.Other egg substitutes are made from just the white of the egg for those who worry about the high cholesterol and fat content in eggs. These products usually have added vitamins and minerals as well as vegetable-based emulsifiers and thickeners such as guar gum. These allow the product to maintain the nutrition and several culinary properties of real eggs, making possible foods like Hollandaise sauce, custard, mayonnaise, and most baked goods with these substitutes.