Presentation on theme: "Petroleum Diesel Engine Emissions: Air Quality and Public Health Impacts and the Biodiesel Alternative State Biodiesel Commission Meeting September 11,"— Presentation transcript:
Petroleum Diesel Engine Emissions: Air Quality and Public Health Impacts and the Biodiesel Alternative State Biodiesel Commission Meeting September 11, 2008 Melinda Treadwell, Ph.D. Keene State College School of Professional and Graduate Studies
What are the benefits and challenges for Diesel Engines??What are the benefits and challenges for Diesel Engines?? What led to 2007/2014 Standards for Diesel Engines and Fuels?What led to 2007/2014 Standards for Diesel Engines and Fuels? What does Keene State College have to do with any of this?What does Keene State College have to do with any of this? What does Biodiesel have to do with any of this?What does Biodiesel have to do with any of this? What are some future research needs?What are some future research needs? Today’s Presentation---Answers to:
Paracelsus (1493 - 1541) “All substances are poisons, there is none which is not a poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy.” THE DOSE MAKES THE POISON The Science of Toxicology
Policy / Regulation Emissions Pollutant(s) Of Concern ConcentrationPotencyExposureDose Endpoint(s) Of Concern Animal Models Cellular & Molecular Assessment Epidemiology Uncertainty Data gaps Health and Environmental Impacts and Decision Making
Petroleum Diesel---benefits Many desirable qualities: Efficient fuel, Effective fuel/technology, Available fuel, Current system established….economic impact with change* *In 2004 NH residents spent $710 million on diesel fuel and heating oil
Increasing concerns regarding health and environmental impacts of diesel equipment Asthma Chronic bronchitis Chronic obstructive airway disease Cardio-pulmonary morbidity and mortality Cancer… “likely to cause cancer in humans” Ozone concentration increases Increasing awareness of the emissions contribution to pollutants of concern from diesel engines Over 25 years of basic and applied research to draw these conclusions Diesel Fuel (Challenges)
Increasing concerns regarding health and environmental impacts of diesel equipment Increasing awareness of the emissions contribution to pollutants of concern from diesel engines Critical Events/Study 1999: California study---MATES I and II—and regulation 2000: USEPA finalizes Diesel Health Assessment Document 2000 – current day: Non-road equipment exposure analyses at Keene State College, raising concern regarding potential impacts (occupational and environmental exposure standards) 2000-2006: USEPA tightens engine and fuel standards for on-highway and non-road diesel engines and tightens the national ambient air quality standard for fine particulate matter Diesel Fuel (Challenges)
The Major Pollutants of Concern: Fine particles (nanoparticles??) 4 - 53% Irritant gases 40 – 90% Cancer causing mixture? >70% of cancer risk in the LA Basin Major Environmental Concerns: NOx Volatile organic compounds
Human Hair (45 - 130 µm diameter) PM 2.5 (2.5 µm) Hair cross section (~70 m) PM 4 ( 4µm ) M. Lipsett, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment What are Fine Particles? A complex mixture of extremely small solid particles and drops of liquid in the air
Fine particles, or haze, restrict our ability to see long distances Hartford Oct. 8, 2002 4 p.m. EDT Unadjusted Hourly conc. of fine particles – 4 g/m 3 Hartford Oct. 2, 2002 4 p.m. EDT Unadjusted Hourly conc. of fine particles – 24 g/m 3
Keene State College Safety Studies Department Research Activities evaluating diesel and biodiesel emissions 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Today NIH-COBRE Award US EPA STAR Grant Bio Diesel NIH-COBRE Award #2
Our Approach Use established occupational and environmental monitoring /analysis methods Use established occupational and environmental monitoring /analysis methods Monitor fine particulate matter exposure and ~45 gaseous pollutants Monitor fine particulate matter exposure and ~45 gaseous pollutants Monitor exposures at the perimeters of a worksite (environmental) Monitor exposures at the perimeters of a worksite (environmental) Monitor in-cabin exposures (occupational) Monitor in-cabin exposures (occupational) Track local meteorological conditions Track local meteorological conditions Compare our monitoring results with allowable occupational and environmental health-protective standards Compare our monitoring results with allowable occupational and environmental health-protective standards
Environmental Air Monitoring Equipment
KSC Exposure Assessment for Petroleum Diesel in Non-Road Sector To quantify occupational and environmental exposures to diesel engine emissions If appropriate… To evaluate exposure reduction options for diesel powered equipment to provide occupational and environmental health improvement
Nonroad Exposure Project Conclusions Nonroad diesel equipment activity substantially increases* fine particulate matter exposures. Nonroad diesel equipment activity substantially increases* fine particulate matter exposures. *Average concentrations were 1-16X greater than normally recorded in each area.
Conclusions Non-road heavy-duty diesel equipment activity increased* diesel particulate matter exposures. Non-road heavy-duty diesel equipment activity increased* diesel particulate matter exposures. *Other projects have concluded that, in an urban environment, diesel particulate “background” ranges between 0.4 – 1.5 g/m 3. These data demonstrate that nonroad equipment activities will increase these concentrations by 1 - 6 X.
Measured Average Fine Particulate Matter Concentration Location8-hour Average Concentration ( g/m 3 ) New York City 09/14-17, 2002 73 (highest measured) VT Ski Area, Shift #1 400 VT Ski Area, Shift #2 220 VT Ski Area, Shift #3 110 EPA requires a 24-hour fine particulate matter exposure of less than 35 g/m 3 Our Smuggler’s Notch 24-hour average was 243 g/m 3
Why not await the pending federal requirements for petroleum diesel? Fuel and new engine standards for highway and non-road diesel engines on the way…
Why not await the pending federal requirements? Phase in for nonroad emission controls 2008 and 2014. New fuels and engine technologies likely not in the field for years - decades to come. Current challenges with ultra low sulfur diesel for on-road engines and engine technology delays (2007 standards) will be a problem… After market emissions controls, cleaner fuels, or other emission reduction efforts focused on the current fleet or stationary engines will mean exposure reductions and environmental improvement immediately.
Recognizing the significance of these emissions and the potential delay for federal emissions control to take effect….what emission reduction options exist ? Alternative fuels---biodiesel??
Biodiesel Use Petroleum Diesel Challenges Non- petroleum Fuel Sustainability Climate Change Public Health EnvironmentEconomicsFeasibility Existing Infrastructure Impacts Business Development
Central Question for our research Does B20 use result in lower emissions of: PM 2.5 PM 2.5 Elemental/Organic Carbon Elemental/Organic Carbon Oxides of Nitrogen Oxides of Nitrogen
City of Keene Recycling Center
Keene Recycling Center
Reduction in PM 2.5 (~62%) was statistically significant (p=0.00001)
Average Elemental Carbon concentration reduction (~22%) statistically significant p=0.014
~370% increase ---highly significant, p= 2E-11
Future Questions?? If these reductions could be reproduced for more mobile engines and stationary engines the emission reductions could be very substantial 51-78% exposure reduction in PM 2.5 51-78% exposure reduction in PM 2.5 18-24% exposure reduction in elemental carbon 18-24% exposure reduction in elemental carbon Will the NOx results be consistently observed? Is there a potency reduction with biodiesel? The question of organic carbon increase must be further investigated 370% increase--attributable to high potency compounds?
Monadnock Biodiesel Collaborative Production of Biodiesel (250,000 gallons/year) Fuel Quality Testing for Biodiesel Exposure and Emissions Research and Education
Acknowledgements City of Keene Mike Blastos Mikaela Engert Donna Hanscom Med Kopczynski Gary LaFreniere Dale Pregent Steve Russell Steve Thornton Duncan Watson Marcia White J&S Environmental Services John DiVincenzo Keene State College Andrew Denley Joseph DiFraia Jim Draper Helen Giles-Gee Mike Grotton Mary Jensen Jay Kahn Chris Langille Andrew McKeen Mel Netzhammer Gary Oden Donna Paley Irissa Plouff Joshua Swasey Nora Traviss Bud Windsor Batchelder Biodiesel Refineries Lee Batchelder William Langille EPA P3 Grant 833-52301 Sources of Funding Heineman Foundation Janes Trust National Institute of Health P20RR018787 EPA Star Fellowship SP916576