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12th U.S./North American MVS, Reno, Nevada, June 9-11, 2008 Effects of Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Filter System on Diesel Aerosols and Nitric Oxides.

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Presentation on theme: "12th U.S./North American MVS, Reno, Nevada, June 9-11, 2008 Effects of Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Filter System on Diesel Aerosols and Nitric Oxides."— Presentation transcript:

1 12th U.S./North American MVS, Reno, Nevada, June 9-11, 2008 Effects of Sintered Metal Diesel Particulate Filter System on Diesel Aerosols and Nitric Oxides in Mine Air By Aleksandar Bugarski, George H. Schnakenberg, & Emanuele Cauda

2 2 Introduction  Diesel particulate matter (DPM) and generally nanometer and ultra fine aerosols are shown to have acute and chronic health effects:  DPM declared by NIOSH [1988] as a “potential” carcinogen;  Long-term exposure to combustion-related fine particulate air pollution is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality [Pope et al. 2002].  MSHA regulations (2001):  30 CFR Part Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure of Underground Metal and Nonmetal Miners;  30 CFR Part 72 - Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure of Underground Coal Miners.  Industry is working on identifying technically and economically feasible control technologies to reduce exposure of underground miners and other workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) and gases.

3 3 Introduction  NIOSH is assisting industry and MSHA by conducting research related to establishing potential of various control technologies and strategies to control exposure of underground miners to nano and ultrafine aerosols and regulated and unregulated gases emitted by diesel engines and by facilitating the application of current and evolving diesel emission control technologies into underground mines:  diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems,  filtration systems with high temperature disposable filter elements (DFEs),  diesel catalytic converters (DOCs),  biodiesel …

4 4 Diesel Emissions  Diesel particulate matter is complex mixture of nano and ultrafine aerosols present in liquid and solid phase.  Regulated gases: CO, CO 2, NO, and NO 2  Unregulated gases: PAH…

5 5 Methodology  Characterization of DPM in occupational setting:  NIOSH Mobile Engine Emissions Laboratory (MEEL) at Lake Lynn Laboratory (LLL)  Avoid laboratory uncertainties introduced with various simulations of processes  Bridge gap between inherently inaccurate field and unrealistic laboratory experiments  LLL offers unique environment for field testing with laboratory accuracy.

6 6 NIOSH Lake Lynn Laboratory (LLL) D Drift E Drift Ventilation Shaft Portal

7 7 NIOSH Diesel Laboratory at LLL

8 8 Engine/Dynamometer Systems: 150 kW Dynamometer Coupled to Isuzu C240 Engine

9 9 Instrumentation Downstream Sampling and Measurement Station SMPS ELPI TEOM

10 10 Instrumentation Downstream and Tailpipe Sampling and Measurement Stations CLD & NDIRNDIR

11 11 Ventilation Measurement and Control

12 12 Sintered Metal DPF System

13 13 Diesel Particulate Filters Sintered Metal Filters  Electro conductive  High porosity  Low back pressure  Withstands high temperatures  Heats up fast (low thermal mass)

14 14 Other Evaluated DPF Systems Cordierite DPFSiC DPFs

15 15 High-Temperature Disposable Filter Elements (DFE) Integrated in the Filtration System with Dry Heat Exchanger DFE in the canister

16 16 Diesel Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Muffler DOC Muffler

17 17 Test Modes ModeDescription Engine Speed TorquePower rpmNmkW R50 Rated speed 50% load R100 Rated speed 100% load I50 Intermediate speed 50% load I100 Intermediate speed 100% load

18 18 Results  Effects of the system on size distribution of diesel aerosols in mine air  Effects of the system on total aerosol number and mass concentrations  Effects of the system on NO x concentrations

19 19 Size Distributions Measured with SMPSs at Downstream and Upstream Stations During Sintered Metal DPF System Evaluation

20 20 Size Distributions Measured with SMPSs at Downstream and Upstream Stations During Sintered Metal DPF System Evaluation

21 21 Size Distributions Measured with SMPSs at Upstream Stations During Sintered Metal DPF System Tests

22 22 Size Distributions Measured with SMPSs at Downstream Stations

23 23 Effects of the System on Total Aerosol Number and Mass Concentrations:

24 24 Effect of Sintered DPF System on NO x Concentrations

25 25 Effect of Sintered DPF System on Percentage of NO 2 in total NO x

26 26 Size Distribution of Aerosols Measured at Downstream Station: R50

27 27 Size Distribution of Aerosols Measured at Downstream Station: I50

28 28 Size Distribution of Aerosols Measured at Downstream Station: R100

29 29 Size Distribution of Aerosols at Downstream Station: I100

30 30 Results Indicate Strong Relationship between Size Distributions and Exhaust Temperatures Mode DPFs, DOC, MufflerDFEs Exhaust Temperature at Inlet of Device Temperature at Outlet from Device Exhaust Temperature at Inlet of Device Temperature at Outlet from Device ºC R R I I

31 31 Size Distribution of Aerosols at Downstream Station: R50

32 32 Size Distribution of Aerosols at Downstream Station: I50

33 33 Size Distribution of Aerosols at Downstream Station: R100

34 34 Size Distribution of Aerosols at Downstream Station: I100

35 35 Effects of Control Technologies on Total Aerosol Number and Mass Concentrations: R50

36 36 Effects of Control Technologies on Total Aerosol Number and Mass Concentrations: I50

37 37 Effects of Control Technologies on Total Aerosol Number and Mass Concentrations: R100

38 38 Effects of Control Technologies on Total Aerosol Number and Mass Concentrations: I100

39 39 Conclusion  The effects of the SM DPF system on number and mass concentrations were found to be engine operating mode dependent.  A 10-fold reductions in total mass concentrations as measured by TEOM were observed for the two low-power R50 and I50 modes.  The corresponding reductions were more than 20-fold at R100 and then more than 100-fold for I100 conditions.  In the R50 and I50 mode cases total mass reductions were accompanied with approximately 20-fold reductions in total number concentrations.  I the cases of R100 and R100 high concentrations of nucleation particles resulted in significantly lower reductions or even an increase in total particle number.

40 40 Conclusion  The SM DPF system and muffler were found to have comparable effects on NO x concentrations for all four modes.  The percentages of NO 2 in total NO X are found to be strongly dependent on engine operation mode / exhaust temperature.  The system consistently produced lower NO 2 fractions them muffler for all four modes.

41 41 The findings and conclusion of this publication have not been formally disseminated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and should not be constituted to represent any agency determination or policy. Mention of any company or product does not constitute endorsement by NIOSH. Thank you for your attention!!!


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