2Four Main Types of Evidence FossilsHomologous structuresSimilar embryo developmentGeographical distribution
3Fossil Record Fossils are evolutionary evidence Fossils show that ancient species share similarities with species that now live on Earth.Fossils records provide evidence that living things have changed over time.GlyptodontArmadillo
4TraitsDerived traitsnewly evolved features, such as feathers, that do not appear in the fossils of common ancestors.Ancestral traitsprimitive features, such as teeth and tails, that do appear in ancestral forms.
6Homologous structures Anatomically similar structures inherited from a common ancestorThese structures can be similar in arrangement and/or function.
7Analogous StructuresStructures that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in structure.Shows that functionally similar features can evolve independently of each otherEx: wing of an insect and wing of bird
11Comparing EmbryosEmbryo: the earliest stage of growth and development of both plants and animalsVertebrate embryos exhibit homologous structures during certain phases of development but become totally different structures in the adult forms.
12Comparing EmbryosSimilar embryo development may suggest a common ancestor
13Biochemical EvidenceCommon ancestry can be seen in the complex metabolic molecules that many different organisms share.Comparison of the DNA or RNA of different species produce biochemical evidence for evolution
14Biochemical EvidenceComparisons of the similarities in amino acids and other molecules across species reflect evolutionary patterns seen in comparative anatomy and in the fossil record.
15Geological Distribution Similar animals are found in different locations around the world.Animals ended up evolving similar features for their environment because of their location on earthThey look the same but live in different areas
16Knowledge CheckTrue or False Organisms with similar anatomy share similar DNA sequences.
17Knowledge Check analogous structures embryological structures Which features are similar in use and evolve insimilar environments, but do not evolve from acommon ancestor?analogous structuresembryological structureshomologous structuresvestigial structures
18Knowledge CheckWhich of the following best explains how the fossil record provides evidence that evolution has occurred?A It indicates the exact cause of structural and behavioral adaptations of organisms.B It shows that the form and structure of groups of organisms have changed over time.C It shows how the embryos of many different vertebrate species are very similar.D It indicates that forms of life existed on Earth at least 3.5 billion years ago.
19Knowledge CheckThe occurrence of the same blood protein in a group of species provides evidence that these species a. evolved in the same habitat. b. evolved in different habitats. c. descended from a common ancestor. d. descended from different ancestors.
20Knowledge Check a tail bones feathers teeth Which is an example of a derived trait?a tailbonesfeathersteeth