2 1. Fossil RecordAre able to observe links between modern forms and ancestors (ex. transition species)Relative age- age compared to other fossils by referring to the geologic time scale and records of known fossilsAbsolute age- use of radiometric dating to date rocks
4 2. Biogeography Geographical distribution of species New organisms arise in same geographic area where similar forms already livedExample) Australia – has native wolves, cats, mice, moles, and anteaters. Most mammals are marsupials (animals evolved in isolation)
12 Analogous Structures- a body part similar in function to another organism due to environmental pressures Ex) the wings of a fly, a moth, and a bird developed independently as adaptations to a common function – flying
21 4. Molecular Biology (DNA and Proteins) Comparison of DNA, RNA, and amino acid sequencesGreater the number of similarities, the more closely the species are related through a common ancestorShows the common descent of the most diverse organisms.
23 Evidence of Evolution: fossil evidence, homologous structures, embryology, vestigial organs, biochemicalBones in bird’s wing and human’s arm are similar in structure.All organisms use ATP to transfer energy.There are similarities in structure among the early stages of fish, birds and humans.Humans, unlike rabbits, have no known use for their appendix.Horses have increased in size and decreased in number of toes since the Eocene.
24 Phylogeny The relationships by ancestry among groups of organism Represented by the “Tree of Life”Different evidence supports different “trees”
27 1. CoevolutionWhen two or more species have evolved adaptations that influence each other (evolutionary “arms race”)Examples:Predator-preyParasite-hostPlant-animal pollinator (bee and flower)Humans have developed and used antibiotics to kill bacteria, bacteria have evolved to become antibiotic resistant
28 2. Convergent EvolutionOrganisms appear to be similar but are not closely related at allThe environment selects similar traitsResult in analagous structuresEx) dolphin and shark
29 3. Divergent EvolutionTwo or more biological characteristics become more and more dissimilar in response to different habitats
30 Adaptive radiation- a new population in a new environment (island) will undergo evolution until the population fills many parts of the environmentEx) Galapagos finchesCaribbean Anole Lizards
31 Artificial SelectionThe intentional breeding (by humans) of certain traits, or combination of traits, over others