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M. Ally Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "M. Ally Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 M. Ally Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008

2 History of Fluoride in Water In 1950, Bruce D. Forsyth, the chief dental officer of the United States Public Health Service advised the American Dental Association (ADA) to fluoridate public water supply. The first implementation of fluoride in water occurred in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The experiment found that fluoride greatly increases cavity protection among young children. As a result, water fluoridation was being widely implemented by 50 million people in By 2002, 46 of the largest cities were fluoridated, a population of 171 million. Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008 Fluoridation of water was on a pace to reach 350 million people worldwide by Many viewed the rapid progress as a communist plot because it denied people their rights and caused side effects.

3 Fluoride: A Step Forward? Fluoride was implemented to reduce the risk of cavity and tooth decay. A 10 year study was conducted with fluoridated water in Newsburgh, New York and the results showed that the children had 58% less cavitie s than the children in Kingston, New York, only 35 miles away where the water was not fluoridated. Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008 Jayanth V. Kumar, director of oral health surveillance and research at the New York State Department of Health, says, “We feel there are enough communities out there with high success rates to justify additional fluoridation.”

4 Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008 Fluoride binds itself to tooth enamel and forms a protective shield to make the tooth resistant to decay. Fluoride is found naturally in raisins, shellfish, teas, and many more products we use everyday. Those who use bottle water, such as Dasani and Aquafina, could be risking their oral health. Also, most of today’s toothpastes and mouthwashes contain fluoride to help fight cavities. Surgeon General Richard H. Carmona states, “Fluoridation is the single most effective public health measure to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health over a lifetime, for both children and adults.” According to federal standard, the highest level of fluoride is 4 parts per million (ppm), but the level in tap water is regulated to 2 ppm.

5 Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008 Fluoride: A Step Backward? The most prominent downside to fluoridating water is the side effects, which can include bone cancer and heart disease. A study reported that more than 99% of fluoride not digested ends up in bones and teeth. In a 1990 study by the National Toxicology Program, 5 out of 100 male rats developed bone cancer when fed large doses of fluoride. The National Research Council found that fluoride, ironically, causes dental fluorosis to a small number of users. Avid Carlsson, winner of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Medicine, states, “Fluoridation is against all principles of modern pharmacology. It’s really obsolete.” CLICK ME!!!

6 About 25% of Americans under 40 have dental fluorosis. A group of 600 professionals urged Congress to reconsider the fluoridation of drinking water, stating that the evidence against fluoride outweighs the benefits. Fluoride can also deplete the fluids of the human body. “It is time for the US and the few remaining fluoridating countries to recognize that fluoridation is outdated, has serious risks, violates sound medical ethics and denies freedom of choice. Fluoridation must be ended now.” Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008

7 Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008 Fluoride: The Social Impact Today, we use tap water in cooking, bathing, drinking, and many other activities. On realizing that fluoride can harmfully effect us, we become hesitant in our daily activities. We are unsure as to whether it is safe for us and our children to use fluoridated water. Is it time to stop fluoridating water? Will the lack of fluoride cause any harmful effect to us?

8 Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008 In this age and time, society is more health-conscious. We care more about our health and appearance than the generations before us. There are products, such as teeth-whitening strips and toothpaste with fluoride, that we use to enhance our health and appearance. But, there is the possibility that drinking fluoridated tap water can counter these products and the strive lifestyle or is it assisting us in reaching our goal? How can we find out more about fluoride and its positive and negative side effects? towards a healthy body. Furthermore, it can harm our internal organs that are very vital to our survival. Is fluoride acting against our efforts to a better

9 Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008 Conclusion Fluoridation of water has both its positive and negative side effects. To increase the positive and reduce the negative, fluoride content levels in water should be lowered. Steven M. Levy of the University of Iowa College of Dentistry says, “Instead of just pushing for more fluoride, we need to find the right balance.” So how can we, as society, help “find the right balance.” First of all, we need to learn more about fluoride and encourage the research behind it. Also, we need to make others aware of the danger fluoride poses and encourage them to join the effort in lowering the fluoride content in public water so we and the coming generations can enjoy a safe and healthy lifestyle.

10 References Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring 2008 Fagin, D. (2008). Second thoughts about fluoride. Scientific American, 298(1), Leitzell, K. (2008). Fears over fluoride. U.S. News & World Report, 144(6), 57. Lennon, M. A. (2006). One in a million: The first community trial of water fluoridation. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(9), Worsnop, R. L. (1994). Water quality. CQ Researcher Online, 4, Retrieved March 17, 2008, from (2007). Congress urged to stop fluoridating drinking water. Chemical Engineer, (795), 14.

11 Pictures, Videos, Sounds Mercer University School of Engineering EGR 108 Professional Practices Spring ook/black%20eyed%20peas/boiling_pour_water.jpg S-QDS-RT-ANGLE-W-NEW_476x357.jpg


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