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How do the different parts of our body COMMUNICATE?

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Presentation on theme: "How do the different parts of our body COMMUNICATE?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How do the different parts of our body COMMUNICATE?
ANSWER: via the endocrine and nervous systems

2 Why is it important for us to understand how cellular
communication works?

3 The Nervous System: Parts & Pieces

4 Two cell types in the NS: 10% Neurons & 90% Glial Cells
A “typical” motor neuron is multipolar Cell body (soma) is the “life hub” mediates cell metabolism, growth, division, contains DNA Axons are specialized to send information to other neurons Dendrites are specialized to receive information from other cells

5 A “typical” sensory neuron is unipolar or bipolar

6 Most neurons in the brain are interneurons
Most interneurons don’t need an axon… WHY?

7 Communication between neurons: Step 1: the neuron at rest (polarized)
Inside is more negative than outside Outside has more Sodium (+) and Cholride (-) lipid molecules Ion channels Inside has more Potassium (+) and anions (-)

8 What keeps the cell at -70 mV when at rest?
Concentration gradient ions move from an area of high to low concentration 2. Electrical gradient ions with the same sign (polarity) repel each other ions with the opposite sign attract each other

9 Step 2: the neuron’s membrane potential begins to depolarize (inside becomes less negative)
If neighboring cells stimulate our neuron, sodium (+) will rush into the cell, making it less and less negative. If it reaches approximately -55mV, our neuron will fire That is, it will generate an action potential.

10 Step 3: the neuron’s membrane potential begins to repolarize (inside starts to become negative)
Eventually, the cell reaches its positive peak, causing sodium gates to close and potassium (+) gates to open… K+ rushes out, returning the cell to - ive Oops! Too far! No worries, the Na – K pump will bring us back to normal 

11 Step 4: action potentials sweep down the axon
The first action potential begins at the AXON HILLOCK This creates a dominos effect of action potentials which end at the axon terminals

12 The dominos effect

13 Step 5: neurotransmitters are released
When the action potential reaches the terminal button, NT’s are released

14 Step 6: NT’s cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the post-synaptic cell

15 ____ synaptic Pre ____ synaptic Post

16 The NT will general either an IPSP or EPSP
Once NT’s bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, what then? The NT will general either an IPSP or EPSP IPSP’s make the cell more negative, decreasing the prob that the cell will fire EPSP’s make the cell less negative, increasing the prob PSP’s are “local potentials” which are distinct from action potentials

17 Local potentials vs. action potentials
Analogous to a gentle nudge vs. a explosive push Local potentials Action potential Decremental Graded Initiated in dendrite or soma Non-decremental All-or-none Initiated at axon hillock

18 From local potential to action potential
Once an IPSP or EPSP is generated, it travels to the axon hillock One IPSP or one EPSP is not enough to generate an action potential But, at any given time, MANY IPSP’s and EPSP’s are being generated The axon hillock “adds up” all the PSP’s… if the sum is ≥ -55mV …

19 How can local potentials have more “umph”?
Temporal summation & Spatial summation

20 What determines the firing rate for a cell?
Absolute Refractory Period Immediately after the AP, the cell cannot fire How does the neuron code the intensity of the EPSP? Relative Refractory Period This occurs after the absolute refractory period Only a large EPSP can get the cell to fire

21 Terminating synaptic activity
Enzyme degradation Re-uptake

22 Regulating synaptic activity
X C I T A O N INHIBI T I O N Agonists Antagonists

23 What about Glial Cells in the nervous system?

24 What Gial cells do They are the glue that hold neurons in place
They increase speed of conduction of the neural impulse Local potentials travel faster down The axon than action potentials Between schwann cells are gaps “Nodes of Ranvier” AP’s occur at the nodes, local Potentials occur under the myelin Saltatory conduction

25 What Gial cells do continued…
Glial cells provide energy to neurons They remove cellular debris They contribute to the development & maintenance of connections between neurons 6. During fetal development, they help guide neurons to their destination


27 The major players


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