Presentation on theme: "Building Vocabulary Skills"— Presentation transcript:
1Building Vocabulary Skills Etymology and Word Analysis
2What is… Vocabulary? Latin: vocabularium (list of words) from vocabularum (a word, name, noun)Vocabulary:
3What is…a word?German: from the wort, which means “to speak/say”Thus, when we build our vocabulary, we are developing our list of words. Words are utterances that we speak that convey a meaning.Word
4Why Vocabulary?It is not enough to be able to pronounce a word. We must be able to comprehend the meaning behind said words.For example:Cain committed fratricide due to his jealousy of Abel.(fra-tri-cide): the murdering of ones’ own brother.
5Etymology The key to developing ones’ vocabulary is etymology. Etymology: The study of the origins of words.Etym (true sense; origin) + ology (the study of)Etymology looks at:Word Parts (Affixes and Roots)Word Origins (Latin; Greek; German; etc…)
6Word Parts: PrefixA prefix is a word part that is placed at the beginning of a word.Pre (before) + fix (to fasten)Other Examples:InterviewReviewInteractReact
7Word Parts: Prefix A prefix changes the meaning of a word Examples: construct; reconstruct; deconstructStruct (the root) means to buildCon + struct: to build together/withRe + con + struct: to build together againDe + con + struct: to build down
8Prefix RulesA word can have as many as two prefixes; usually one of them is negative.InaccessibleIn + ac + cess (root) +ible (suffix)In= notAc= tocess-= goible= capable or able to…Inaccessible: not able to get to or go toward something.
9Prefix Rules A prefix can function as a reversal or negation In the following sentence, the prefix dis functions as a reversal:Please disconnect the wire.The in the next sentence, dis functions as a negation:The wire is disconnected.What is the difference between the two sentences?Disconnect in the sentence does not mean “not connect”. Since the wire is already connected, the state of the wire must be reversed from being connected to NOT being connected.The second sentence means that the wire is not connected. Here, the prefix dis means “not”
10Prefix Rules A prefix can function as an intensifier. Example: Confirm: con + firm (to make more firm)Obtain: ob + tain (a stronger version of attain)
11Prefix Rules A few prefixes can change the part of speech of a word. ExamplesBefriend is a verb: be + friend (noun)Enrich is a verb: en + rich (adjective)Dethrone is a verb: de + throne (noun)
12Prefix Rules Prefixes can have more than one form: The prefixes suc, sud, suf, sug, sum, sup, sus, su, and subter are all forms of sub which means below/under or come from underneath/afterSubmarine (under water)Succeed (to take from beneath)Suppose (to assume from information that is placed under/hidden; drawing a conclusion from underneath the foundation of knowledge/information)
13Word Parts: SuffixA suffix is a word part that is placed at the end of a word.Suff (after) + fix (to fasten)Other Examples:lawfulhopefulhappinessgoodness
14Word Parts: Suffix and Part of Speech Noun Suffix EndingsAdjective Suffix Ending-age: mileage; postage; damage- able (capable; lovable)-al (national; natural; seasonal)-ship: fellowship; friendship; sportsmanshipAdverb EndingsVerb Suffix Endings-ly (nationally; naturally; swiftly)-ate (calculate; meditate; evaporate)- where (somewhere; anywhere)- ize/ise (memorize; sympathize; comprise)
15Suffix Rules A word can have as many as three suffixes Example: constitution; constitutional; constitutionalityRoot: sti: to standCon (prefix) + sti(tu) + tionCon (prefix) + sti(tu) + tion + alCon (prefix) + sti(tu) + tion + al + ity
16Suffix RulesSuffixes have meanings Like Musical; comical; classical Fantastic; realistic; Slavic State of/Condition/Quality Appointment; retirement Insistence; patience; inheritence One who: Physician; musician; politician Teacher; barber; carpenter Artist; pianist; astrologist
17Word Parts: Roots What is the Root? The root is the main part of a word. It is the part of the word which the prefix and suffix are fastened.Remember:pre (before) + fix (fasten)suf (after) + fix (fasten)Think of the roots as the anchor that carries the basic meaning of a word.The root word part is like the root of a plant. It carries meaning or nutrients to allow a word to blossom and grow.
18Word Parts: Roots Cred: to believe Incredible: Creditor: In (not) + cred (believe) + ible (able)Definition: not able to believeCreditor:Cred(it) + or (a person who)Definition: a person that determines whether you can be trusted or believed
19Word Parts: Roots Ject: to throw Reject: Re (back) + ject (throw): Definition: to throw backProject:Pro (forward) + ject (throw)Definition: to throw forwardInterject:Prefix: InterDefinition: to throw between
21Word and the National Origin English is the youngest language on the planet; it is a compilation of tongues of the world. We are often told that these words are mostly from Latin and Greek; however, most words can be traced back to Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Egyptian.Knowing the origin of words is important because it can lead you to the basic and most fundamental meaning of a word.Words have connotative and denotative meanings (see in slides later). Having knowledge of both will help you understand more accurately many of the words with which you already may be somewhat familiar.
22Denotation vs Connotation This is the literal meaning of a word. It translates as from the letters/markings. That is, the meaning is from the original markings (see etymology).Connotation:This is the shaded/colored meaning. It translates as added letters/markings
23What is the Connotation? (Positive or Negative) StenchScentDefinition: a smell, a scent, an odor.Etymology: O.E. stenc; Old Saxon stanc; Old German stank- to emit a smell. Evil odor meaning applied in 1200 c.Definition: what can be smelled.Etymology: O.F. sentir; Latin sentire- to feel, perceive, sense, discern, hear, see