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Building Vocabulary Skills Etymology and Word Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Vocabulary Skills Etymology and Word Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Vocabulary Skills Etymology and Word Analysis

2 What is…  Vocabulary?  Latin:  vocabularium (list of words) from vocabularum (a word, name, noun)

3 What is…  a word?  German: from the wort, which means “to speak/say”  Thus, when we build our vocabulary, we are developing our list of words. Words are utterances that we speak that convey a meaning.

4 Why Vocabulary?  It is not enough to be able to pronounce a word. We must be able to comprehend the meaning behind said words.  For example:  Cain committed fratricide due to his jealousy of Abel.  (fra-tri-cide): the murdering of ones’ own brother.

5 Etymology  The key to developing ones’ vocabulary is etymology.  Etymology : The study of the origins of words.  Etym (true sense; origin) + ology (the study of )  Etymology looks at:  Word Parts (Affixes and Roots)  Word Origins (Latin; Greek; German; etc…)

6 Word Parts: Prefix  A prefix is a word part that is placed at the beginning of a word.  Pre (before) + fix (to fasten)  Other Examples:  Re view  Re act  Inter view  Inter act

7 Word Parts: Prefix  A prefix changes the meaning of a word  Examples: construct; reconstruct; deconstruct  Struct (the root) means to build  Con + struct: to build together/with  Re + con + struct: to build together again  De + con + struct: to build down

8 Prefix Rules  A word can have as many as two prefixes; usually one of them is negative.  Inaccessible  In + ac + cess (root) +ible (suffix)  In= not  Ac= to  cess-= go  ible= capable or able to…  Inaccessible: not able to get to or go toward something.

9 Prefix Rules  A prefix can function as a reversal or negation  In the following sentence, the prefix dis functions as a reversal:  Please disconnect the wire.  The in the next sentence, dis functions as a negation:  The wire is disconnected.  What is the difference between the two sentences?

10 Prefix Rules  A prefix can function as an intensifier.  Example:  Confirm: con + firm (to make more firm)  Obtain: ob + tain (a stronger version of attain )

11 Prefix Rules  A few prefixes can change the part of speech of a word.  Examples  Befriend is a verb: be + friend (noun)  Enrich is a verb: en + rich (adjective)  Dethrone is a verb: de + throne (noun)

12 Prefix Rules  Prefixes can have more than one form:  The prefixes suc, sud, suf, sug, sum, sup, sus, su, and subter are all forms of sub which means below / under or come from underneath/after  Submarine (under water)  Succeed (to take from beneath)  Suppose (to assume from information that is placed under/hidden; drawing a conclusion from underneath the foundation of knowledge/information)

13 Word Parts: Suffix  A suffix is a word part that is placed at the end of a word.  Suff (after) + fix (to fasten)  Other Examples:  hope ful  good ness  law ful  happi ness

14 Word Parts: Suffix and Part of Speech  Noun Suffix Endings  -age: mileage; postage; damage  -ship: fellowship; friendship; sportsmanship  Verb Suffix Endings  -ate (calculate; meditate; evaporate)  - ize/ise (memorize; sympathize; comprise) Adjective Suffix Ending  - able (capable; lovable)  -al (national; natural; seasonal)  Adverb Endings  -ly (nationally; naturally; swiftly)  - where (somewhere; anywhere)

15 Suffix Rules  A word can have as many as three suffixes  Example: constitution; constitutional; constitutionality  Root: sti: to stand  Con (prefix) + sti(tu) + tion  Con (prefix) + sti(tu) + tion + al  Con (prefix) + sti(tu) + tion + al + ity

16 Suffix Rules Suffixes have meanings Like Musical; comical; classical Fantastic; realistic; Slavic State of/Condition/Quality Appointment; retirement Insistence; patience; inheritence One who: Physician; musician; politician Teacher; barber; carpenter Artist; pianist; astrologist

17 Word Parts: Roots What is the Root?  The root is the main part of a word. It is the part of the word which the prefix and suffix are fastened.  Remember:  pre (before) + fix (fasten)  suf (after) + fix (fasten)  Think of the roots as the anchor that carries the basic meaning of a word. The root word part is like the root of a plant. It carries meaning or nutrients to allow a word to blossom and grow.

18 Word Parts: Roots  Cred: to believe  Incredible :  In (not) + cred (believe) + ible (able)  Definition: not able to believe  Creditor :  Cred(it) + or (a person who)  Definition: a person that determines whether you can be trusted or believed

19 Word Parts: Roots  Ject: to throw  Reject :  Re (back) + ject (throw):  Definition: to throw back  Project :  Pro (forward) + ject (throw)  Definition: to throw forward  Interject :  Prefix: Inter  Definition: to throw between

20 Word Parts: All Together

21 Word and the National Origin  English is the youngest language on the planet; it is a compilation of tongues of the world. We are often told that these words are mostly from Latin and Greek; however, most words can be traced back to Sanskrit, Hebrew, and Egyptian.  Knowing the origin of words is important because it can lead you to the basic and most fundamental meaning of a word.  Words have connotative and denotative meanings (see in slides later). Having knowledge of both will help you understand more accurately many of the words with which you already may be somewhat familiar.

22 Denotation vs Connotation  Denotation :  This is the literal meaning of a word. It translates as from the letters/markings. That is, the meaning is from the original markings (see etymology).  Connotation :  This is the shaded/colored meaning. It translates as added letters/markings

23 What is the Connotation? (Positive or Negative) Stench  Definition: a smell, a scent, an odor.  Etymology: O.E. stenc ; Old Saxon stanc ; Old German stank - to emit a smell. Evil odor meaning applied in 1200 c. Scent  Definition: what can be smelled.  Etymology: O.F. sentir ; Latin sentire - to feel, perceive, sense, discern, hear, see

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