2Figurative LanguageFigurative language communicates ideas beyond the literal meaning of words.FIGURATIVE: She left the room like a cheetah chasing its prey.LITERAL MEANING/IDEA EXPRESSED: She left the room quickly.Writers use these tools to communicate descriptions and abstract ideas to the reader in a way that’s creative and, sometimes, even more truthful than literal language.=
3You are the wind beneath my wings. FIGURATIVE: Your support and friendship helps me in my life.LITERAL: You are actually wind underneath my wings.
4Figurative LanguageFigurative language communicates ideas beyond the literal meaning of words.FIGURATIVEAfter our fight at the mall, every time I saw my best friend I was walking on egg shells.WHAT IS THE DECODED MEANING OF THIS SENTENCE?
5Figurative LanguageHowever, what’s tricky for readers is that we must often decode the figurative language into literal language to understand the writer’s meaning.In English III, beyond just identifying “that’s a metaphor” or “that’s personification”, we want to think about the writer’s purpose:WHY did the writer use that particular figurative language or device?WHAT IDEA is he or she trying to express?
61. SIMILEused to compare two different things or ideas using like or as.His thoughts tumbled in his head, making and breaking alliances, like underpants in a dryer without Cling Free.What’s being compared in this simile?What’s the purpose? What idea is the writer expressing?
72. METAPHOR ~ William Shakespeare a figure of speech which makes a direct or implied comparison (without like or as) between two things or ideas that are poles apart from each other but where the writer notices a shared characteristic between themAll the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players…~ William ShakespeareWhat’s being compared in this metaphor?What’s the purpose? What idea is the writer expressing?
8The difference between similes and metaphors Simile: Ryan is as hungry as a bear. OR Ryan is like a hungry bear.Metaphor: Ryan is a real bear when he gets hungry.
9IMPLIED METAPHORis a metaphor that is not as obvious because it’s not explicitly stated using the verb “is”My Kentucky-fried skin was red after too many hours in the sun.=
10IMPLIED METAPHOR …is a metaphor that is not as obvious because it’s not explicitly stated using the verb “is”“Now is the time to lift our national policy from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of human dignity.”~MLK, “Letter from a Birmingham Jail”What’s being compared in this metaphor?What’s the purpose? What idea is the writer expressing?
11IMPLIED METAPHOR Often a VERB is used to make an implied metaphor. She drove cruel rumors about me all over the school, denting and smashing my reputation to pieces.What’s being compared to what in this metaphor?What’s the purpose? What idea is the writer expressing?
12WEAK similes or metaphors… occur when we attempt to compare two things that are too similar or that belong to the same category.The dirty pond was like a polluted river.The old oak tree was the earth of our backyard.Her face was an oval of flesh.It's just apples versus oranges, and it's not a level playing field by any means.
13Dead or Clichéd Metaphors/Similes back against the wallthe ball’s in your courtas big as a housebite the bulletas busy as a beecool as a cucumberto be on firefit as a fiddlelike a deer in the headlightsgo the extra mileheart of goldthrow your hat in the ringturn over a new leaflight at the end of the tunnelto open a Pandora’s boxas pure as snowships that pass in the nighta thorn in my sideThese figures of speech--and there are many more--are fine to use in every day conversation, but we want to avoid them in our writing because they’ve lost their force and imaginative effectiveness because of frequent use.
143. PERSONIFICATIONA figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstract concepts are given human qualities.
173. PERSONIFICATION MIRROR by Sylvia Plath I am silver and exact. I have no preconceptions.Whatever I see I swallow immediately.Just as it is, unmisted by love or dislike.I am not cruel, only truthful--What’s being given what human qualities?
183. PERSONIFICATIONCommon phrases not technically considered true personification:shoulder of the roadthe wind blowsfoot of the bedthe birds singhands of the clockthe grass growsarm of the chairthe body of an essaylegs of the table
194. HYPERBOLEUsing exaggeration--something that could never actually happen--for emphasis or effect.I could sleep for a year.
204. HYPERBOLEMy English III textbook weighs a ton.
214. HYPERBOLE“…when you have cursed the wind for its effect on a ball; when you’ve had the pressure of an entire game on your foot—then you will understand what it’s like to be a kicker.” ~excerpt from Kevin M.’s MLK periodic sentenceWhere is the hyperbole in this passage?What truth is the writer attempting to express?
22What idea is this guy in the waiting room expressing by making this hyperbolic statement?
235. allusionan indirect or implied reference to a person, place, event, or idea already known by the reader/audience from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, or popular culture“We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren, till she transforms us into beasts.” ~Patrick Henry’s Speech to the Virginia ConventionMost often writers use allusions as a simile or metaphor, such as the example above where Patrick Henry is comparing the guile of the British to Circe in The Odyssey.
245. allusionMine's a tale that can't be told, my freedom I hold dear. How years ago in days of old, when magic filled the air. T'was in the darkest depths of Mordor, I met a girl so fair. But Gollum, and the evil one crept up and slipped away with her, her, her....yeah.~ lyrics from Led Zeppelin’s “Ramble On”What other work is being alluded to in this song?What’s the purpose of this allusion? What does this choice show about the girl the speaker met and what happened in their relationship?
256. Parallel Structureusing the same grammatical structure or pattern of words, phrases, or clauses to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importanceNOT PARALLEL:Ellen likes hiking, the rodeo, and to take afternoon naps.A little more Parallel:Ellen likes hiking, attending the rodeo, and taking afternoon naps.Best:Ellen likes hiking mountains, attending rodeos, and taking naps.
266. Parallel Structureusing the same grammatical structure or pattern of words, phrases, or clauses to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importanceWE REAL COOL by Gwendolyn BrooksWe real cool. WeLeft school. WeLurk late. We (one-syllable verb, one-syllable adjective)Strike straight. We (one-syllable verb, one-syllable adjective)Sing sin. We (one-syllable verb, one-syllable noun)Thin gin. We (one-syllable verb, one-syllable noun)Jazz June. WeDie soon.In this poem, it’s not just the repetition of the word “we” that give this parallel structure.
281. ALLITERATION Don't dream it. Drive it. the repetition of consonant SOUNDS at the beginning of the strongest stressed syllable in a word--most of the time this means the beginning of a word.Don't dream it. Drive it.Jaguar advertising slogan
291. ALLITERATION Example: Below the belt the repetition of consonant SOUNDS at the beginning of the strongest stressed syllable in a word--most of the time this means the beginning of a word.Example: Below the beltThis is actually not great alliteration because in the word “Below” the stress falls on the SECOND syllable of the word, which starts with “l”.
301. ALLITERATION Example: Above the belt the repetition of consonant SOUNDS at the beginning of the strongest stressed syllable in a word--most of the time this means the beginning of a word.Example: Above the beltThough these words begin with different letters, their stressed syllables begin with the same letter, so we hear alliteration.
311. ALLITERATION Example: The Physics of fish is fun! It’s important to remember that alliteration is about the repetition of consonant SOUNDS, not letters.Example: The Physics of fish is fun!Though “Physics” and “fish” start with different letters, they alliterate because they begin with the same sound.
321. ALLITERATION Not Alliteration: Thin Tin… It’s important to remember that alliteration is about the repetition of consonant SOUNDS, not letters.Not Alliteration: Thin Tin…Though both words begin with the consonant “t”, they don’t begin with same SOUND.
331. ALLITERATIONTo truly alliterate, the repeating sounds must be close together (back to back) OR if spread out, there must be multiple repetitions of the soundNot Alliteration: Please tell me just where you’d like to play.Legit Alliteration: Please tell Pam that it’s time to play and practice.
342. ASSONANCEthe repetition of vowel sounds within neighboring words (So, not the same as words at the ends of lines rhyming.) Assonance creates INTERNAL rhyming.I bomb atomically. Socrates' philosophies and hypotheses can't define how I be droppin' these mockeries.from the Wu-Tang Clan’s "Triumph"
352. ASSONANCE the repetition of vowel sounds within words Who fuses the music With no illusions Producing the blue prints Clueless? Automator - defy the laws of nature Electronic monolith throw a jam upon the disc The futuristic looper with the quickness Hyper-producin' hydrogen fusion liquids—keep your distancefrom Del The Funky Homosapien’s “Mastermind"
362. ASSONANCE Assonance?: Treat the bread Nothing gold can stay Like alliteration, this is about the repetition of a SOUND, not letters.Assonance?:Treat the breadNothing gold can stayThough these words contain the same vowels, the SOUNDS are different.
372. ASSONANCE Assonance? Should sugar A queasy sweep Like alliteration, this is about the repetition of a SOUND, not letters.Assonance?Should sugarA queasy sweepThough these words contain different vowels, the SOUNDS are the same.
383. ONOMATOPOEIAa word that imitates the sound it represents