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World War II Erupts Chapter 16 Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II Erupts Chapter 16 Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II Erupts Chapter 16 Notes


3 Objectives: How did the aftermath of World War I contribute to political problems in Europe? How did the problems facing Europe in the postwar years lead to the rise of totalitarian leaders? What events exemplify the growing use of military force by totalitarian regimes in the 1930s? What alarming actions did Adolf Hitler take in the mid-1930s?

4 Problems in Europe after WWI
Millions dead Farms & cities ruined Economy in ruins


6 Problems in Europe after WWI
Problems w/ Treaty of Versailles France --too easy Italy—ignored Germany—loses land, pay reparations, weak gov’t.

7 Europe after World War I

8 Problems in Europe after WWI
Problems w/ the League of Nations No military power


10 Rise of Dictators in Europe & Asia
Italy, 1922 Benito Mussolini National Fascist Party Glorified state; no individual rights Violence against Comm. & Soc.

11 Italy 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia
Ethiopians request help from League of Nations & world—denied


13 Rise of Dictators in Europe & Asia
Spain, 1930s Francisco Franco Fascist General during the Spanish Civil War, emerges leader

14 Spanish Civil War Nationalists Popular Front Monarchy & monarchists
Catholics & Catholic Church Anarchists Basques Catalans Communists Republicans Socialists

15 Spanish Civil War

16 Guernica by Pablo Picasso

17 Rise of Dictators in Europe & Asia
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin Communist Seized power at Lenin’s death Eliminated all opposition (purges & gulags)

18 Soviet Union Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Hitler agrees not to invade SU SU will stay out of war Divide Poland b/w them

19 Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact


21 Rise of Dictators in Europe & Asia
Japan Hideki Tojo (main military leader; takes full control in 1940) Nationalist/Military gov’t.

22 Japan 1934—violates Washington Naval Conference & builds up navy

23 Japan 1936—signs anticommunist pact w/ Germany


25 Japan 1937--Invades Manchuria & northern China to gain resources



28 Japan 1941—invades French Indochina Interferes w/ American interests
Won’t negotiate w/ FDR

29 Germany Germany, Adolf Hitler National Socialist Party (Nazis)
Failed attempt to seize power in Prison wrote Mien Kampf

30 Germany 1933—became chancellor (elected position)
Gradually seized power & built up military



33 Germany First concentration camps built, 1933
Goering founds GESTAPO, 1933 the SS (Schutzstaffel) is formed, 1934 Hitler becomes Der Fuherer, 1934 Hermann Goering

34 CONCENTRATION CAMPS 100 of these in Nazi-occupied Europe
prisoners used for forced labor prisoners usually lasted less than 1/2 year communists, homosexuals, criminals, social-democrats, artists. First camp was opened in 1933, right after Nazis came to power

35 Germany Nuremberg Laws, 1935


37 Objectives: How did Germany’s actions in 1939 trigger the start of World War II? Where did German forces turn after overrunning Poland in 1939? What developments increased tensions between the United States and Japan in East Asia?

38 Germany Heinreich Himmler appointed chief of German police, 1936
1936—Hitler places troops in the Rhineland (area that borders France & Germany) GB & Fr do nothing to stop this

39 Germany

40 Germany 1938—Anschluss—Hitler attempts to unite Germans in Germany & Austria Austrian gov’t objects Hitler forces his way into Austria GB & Fr do nothing to stop this

41 Germany 1938--Hitler wants control of the Sudetenland (area of Czechoslovakia) Encourages Germans in Sudetenland to protest Czech. Gov’t. Munich Agreement--N. Chamberlain & other Allies allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland (appeasement) Churchill is against appeasement



44 Munich Agreement Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with. –British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain

45 Germany Kristallnacht (night of broken glass), 1939

46 Germany MS St. Louis turned away from US

47 Germany 1939—Hitler annexes the rest of Czechoslovakia (appeasement fails) Signs pact w/ Italy Signs pact w/ Soviet Union

48 Germany & Italy form alliance

49 Germany 1939--Hitler invades Poland Blitzkrieg
German Jews sent to Poland, ghettos established Allies (GB & Fr) declare war on Germany Wait for Hitler to attack through the Maginot Line Hitler attacks through the Ardennes Forrest


51 German troops in Warsaw, Poland


53 Germany 1940—Hitler invades Denmark & Norway
Gives Germany more access to Atlantic Ocean

54 Germany 1940—forms an alliance w/ Italy & Japan Tripartite Pact
Axis Powers

55 Germany 1940--Hitler invades Belgium

56 Germany Hitler also invades France Attacks through Ardennes Forrest
France surrenders to Germany & Italy, June 1940 Maginot Line


58 Germany British troops evacuate Dunkirk, France, June 1940

59 Vichy France—unconquered area of France

60 The French Resistance Gen. Charles DeGualle

61 Objectives: Why was a commitment to isolationism so widespread in the 1930s? How did Roosevelt balance American isolationism with the need to intervene in the war? What did the United States do to prepare for war in 1940 and 1941? What were the causes and effects of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor?

62 US Isolationism Amer. questioned reasons & cost of WWI
Anti- League of Nations feelings 1935—Neutrality Act Prohibits sale of arms & loans to warring countries

63 America First Committee

64 US Intervention Individual Amer. participate in Spanish Civil War: American Lincoln Brigade FDR ends trade w/ Italy following invasion of Ethiopia FDR gives “Quarantine Speech”

65 US Intervention US builds up navy “Cash & Carry” policy
FDR urges “All aid short of war”

66 US Intervention Lend Lease Act Atlantic Charter
Agreement b/w FDR & Churchill Against Hitler

67 Lend-Lease Act Great Britain $31 billion Soviet Union $11 billion France $3 billion China $1.5 billion Other European $500 million South America $400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000

68 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
US conflict w/ Japan over Indochina US ends trade w/ Japan & freezes assets in US US allies w/ Brit. & Fr.


70 Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
Kamikaze Pilots Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto




74 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
Attack lasted 2 hrs 8 battleships damaged; 4 sunk 200 aircraft destroyed 2,400 Americans killed








82 Pearl Harbor Memorial

83 Objectives: How did the U.S. armed forces mobilize to fight World War II? What role did American industry and science play in mobilizing to fight World War II? How did mobilization challenge the nation’s ideals of freedom?


85 FDR signs a declaration of war after attacks on Pearl Harbor

86 America Mobilizes for War
Gen. George C. Marshall leads effort Mobilization ends the Depression

87 America Mobilizes for War
Factories turn to wartime production Gov’t. regulated production National War Labor Board Smith Connally Act


89 Opportunities for women:
Factory jobs Rosie the Riveter WAVES (Navy) WACS (Army) WASPS (Air Force) Red Cross Nurses


91 Rosie the Riveter




95 This is my grandmother’s Nurse’s Aid class
This is my grandmother’s Nurse’s Aid class. Can you pick out which lady she is?

96 My grandparents (Paul & Bette Bratten)

97 America Mobilizes for War
New military bases Mass production of ships Henry Kaiser Draft reinstated; many volunteers

98 America Mobilizes for War
Manhattan Project Atomic bomb J. Robert Oppenheimer & Gen. Leslie Groves


100 Oak Ridge, TN City did not exist until 1942
Site chosen b/c of rural location, proximity to hydroelectric power, water sources, railroad lines & private nature of Appalachians 4 factories built




104 Y-12 Plant

105 Graphite Reactor


107 Minorities Afr. Amer. served in segregated units
More jobs for minorities all around Bracero program brought Hispanics to work in US Zoot suit riots


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