Presentation on theme: "World War II Erupts Chapter 16 Notes Objectives: How did the aftermath of World War I contribute to political problems in Europe? How did the problems."— Presentation transcript:
World War II Erupts Chapter 16 Notes
Objectives: How did the aftermath of World War I contribute to political problems in Europe? How did the problems facing Europe in the postwar years lead to the rise of totalitarian leaders? What events exemplify the growing use of military force by totalitarian regimes in the 1930s? What alarming actions did Adolf Hitler take in the mid-1930s?
Problems in Europe after WWI Millions dead Farms & cities ruined Economy in ruins
Problems in Europe after WWI Problems w/ Treaty of Versailles –France --too easy –Italy—ignored –Germany—loses land, pay reparations, weak gov’t.
Europe after World War I
Problems in Europe after WWI Problems w/ the League of Nations –No military power
Rise of Dictators in Europe & Asia Italy, 1922 –Benito Mussolini –National Fascist Party Glorified state; no individual rights –Violence against Comm. & Soc.
Italy 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia Ethiopians request help from League of Nations & world—denied
Rise of Dictators in Europe & Asia Spain, 1930s –Francisco Franco –Fascist –General during the Spanish Civil War, emerges leader
Spanish Civil War Nationalists Monarchy & monarchists Catholics & Catholic Church Popular Front Anarchists Basques Catalans Communists Republicans Socialists
Spanish Civil War
Guernica by Pablo Picasso
Rise of Dictators in Europe & Asia Soviet Union –Joseph Stalin –Communist –Seized power at Lenin’s death –Eliminated all opposition (purges & gulags)
Soviet Union Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact –Hitler agrees not to invade SU –SU will stay out of war –Divide Poland b/w them
Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact
Rise of Dictators in Europe & Asia Japan –Hideki Tojo (main military leader; takes full control in 1940) –Nationalist/Military gov’t.
Japan 1934—violates Washington Naval Conference & builds up navy
Japan 1936—signs anticommunist pact w/ Germany
Japan Invades Manchuria & northern China to gain resources
Japan 1941—invades French Indochina –Interferes w/ American interests –Won’t negotiate w/ FDR
Germany Germany, –Adolf Hitler –National Socialist Party (Nazis) –Failed attempt to seize power in Prison wrote Mien Kampf
Germany –1933—became chancellor (elected position) Gradually seized power & built up military
Germany First concentration camps built, 1933 Goering founds GESTAPO, 1933 the SS (Schutzstaffel) is formed, 1934 Hitler becomes Der Fuherer, 1934 Hermann Goering
CONCENTRATION CAMPS 100 of these in Nazi-occupied Europe prisoners used for forced labor prisoners usually lasted less than 1/2 year communists, homosexuals, criminals, social-democrats, artists. First camp was opened in 1933, right after Nazis came to power
Germany Nuremberg Laws, 1935
Objectives: How did Germany’s actions in 1939 trigger the start of World War II? Where did German forces turn after overrunning Poland in 1939? What developments increased tensions between the United States and Japan in East Asia?
Germany Heinreich Himmler appointed chief of German police, —Hitler places troops in the Rhineland (area that borders France & Germany) –GB & Fr do nothing to stop this
1938—Anschluss—Hitler attempts to unite Germans in Germany & Austria –Austrian gov’t objects –Hitler forces his way into Austria –GB & Fr do nothing to stop this
Germany Hitler wants control of the Sudetenland (area of Czechoslovakia) –Encourages Germans in Sudetenland to protest Czech. Gov’t. –Munich Agreement--N. Chamberlain & other Allies allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland (appeasement) Churchill is against appeasement
Munich Agreement Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with. – British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain
Germany Kristallnacht (night of broken glass), 1939
Germany MS St. Louis turned away from US
Germany 1939—Hitler annexes the rest of Czechoslovakia (appeasement fails) –Signs pact w/ Italy –Signs pact w/ Soviet Union
Germany & Italy form alliance
Germany Hitler invades Poland –Blitzkrieg –German Jews sent to Poland, ghettos established –Allies (GB & Fr) declare war on Germany Wait for Hitler to attack through the Maginot Line Hitler attacks through the Ardennes Forrest
German troops in Warsaw, Poland
Germany 1940—Hitler invades Denmark & Norway –Gives Germany more access to Atlantic Ocean
Germany 1940—forms an alliance w/ Italy & Japan –Tripartite Pact –Axis Powers
Germany Hitler invades Belgium
Germany Hitler also invades France –Attacks through Ardennes Forrest –France surrenders to Germany & Italy, June 1940 Maginot Line
Germany British troops evacuate Dunkirk, France, June 1940
Vichy France— unconquered area of France
The French Resistance Gen. Charles DeGualle
Objectives: Why was a commitment to isolationism so widespread in the 1930s? How did Roosevelt balance American isolationism with the need to intervene in the war? What did the United States do to prepare for war in 1940 and 1941? What were the causes and effects of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor?
US Isolationism Amer. questioned reasons & cost of WWI Anti- League of Nations feelings 1935—Neutrality Act –Prohibits sale of arms & loans to warring countries
America First Committee
US Intervention Individual Amer. participate in Spanish Civil War: American Lincoln Brigade FDR ends trade w/ Italy following invasion of Ethiopia FDR gives “Quarantine Speech”
US Intervention US builds up navy “Cash & Carry” policy FDR urges “All aid short of war”
US Intervention Lend Lease Act Atlantic Charter –Agreement b/w FDR & Churchill –Against Hitler
Lend-Lease Act Great Britain $31 billion Soviet Union $11 billion France $3 billion China $1.5 billion Other European $500 million South America $400 million The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor US conflict w/ Japan over Indochina US ends trade w/ Japan & freezes assets in US US allies w/ Brit. & Fr.
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Kamikaze Pilots
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor Attack lasted 2 hrs 8 battleships damaged; 4 sunk 200 aircraft destroyed 2,400 Americans killed
Pearl Harbor Memorial
Objectives: How did the U.S. armed forces mobilize to fight World War II? What role did American industry and science play in mobilizing to fight World War II? How did mobilization challenge the nation’s ideals of freedom?
FDR signs a declaration of war after attacks on Pearl Harbor
America Mobilizes for War Gen. George C. Marshall leads effort –Mobilization ends the Depression
America Mobilizes for War –Factories turn to wartime production Gov’t. regulated production –National War Labor Board –Smith Connally Act
Opportunities for women: –Factory jobs Rosie the Riveter –WAVES (Navy) –WACS (Army) –WASPS (Air Force) –Red Cross Nurses
Rosie the Riveter
This is my grandmother’s Nurse’s Aid class. Can you pick out which lady she is?
My grandparents (Paul & Bette Bratten)
America Mobilizes for War New military bases Mass production of ships –Henry Kaiser Draft reinstated; many volunteers
America Mobilizes for War Manhattan Project –Atomic bomb –J. Robert Oppenheimer & Gen. Leslie Groves
Oak Ridge, TN City did not exist until 1942 Site chosen b/c of rural location, proximity to hydroelectric power, water sources, railroad lines & private nature of Appalachians 4 factories built
Minorities Afr. Amer. served in segregated units More jobs for minorities all around Bracero program brought Hispanics to work in US –Zoot suit riots