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American Neutrality, 1920-1941. Roots of Neutrality: Isolationism Disillusionment w/ WWI Disillusionment w/ League of Nations Disclosure of War Profiteering.

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Presentation on theme: "American Neutrality, 1920-1941. Roots of Neutrality: Isolationism Disillusionment w/ WWI Disillusionment w/ League of Nations Disclosure of War Profiteering."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Neutrality,

2 Roots of Neutrality: Isolationism Disillusionment w/ WWI Disillusionment w/ League of Nations Disclosure of War Profiteering – Nye Committee, 1933 – US entry blamed on munitions industry! – Influenced Neutrality Acts Belief in geographic protection Primary concern was economics

3 American Isolation, Post WW I Belief that US involvement in WWI was a horrible mistake Efforts by US to avoid future involvement – Peace societies (conservative and radical) – Washington Naval Conference, 1922 – Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 (outlawed war!) – Recognition of USSR, 1933 – Good Neighbor Policy (shift away from direct intervention in Latin America), 1933

4 American Isolation, Post WWI Events of early 1930s showed America the agreements wouldn’t work – Japanese invade Manchuria, 1931 – Hitler announced Germany’s rearmament, 1935 – Italian invasion of Ethiopia, 1935 – Spanish Civil War, 1936 – Rhineland militarized, 1936 – Axis military Pact, 1936 – Japan-China clash, 1937 (WWII began in Asia)

5 Totalitarianism v. Democracy Totalitarianism’s basic ideals Individual serves the state State is supreme State grants rights Militarism, force rule Major totalitarian rulers –A–Adolf Hitler (Germany) –B–Benito Mussolini (Italy) –J–Josef Stalin (USSR) –F–Francisco Franco (Spain) –H–Hideki Tojo (Japan) Democracy’s basic ideals State serves the individual People are supreme People have rights Emphasis on debate Major Democratic leaders – FDR (USA) – Neville Chamberlain (UK) – Eduard Daladier (France)

6 American Isolation in Action, Post WWI American reaction – Johnson Debt Default Act (no loans to WWI defaulters) – Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937: Together, provided that if President said a foreign war was taking place, no sailing, sales, transportation of goods, or loans to any belligerent (would have kept US out of WWI) – FDR: “Quarantine” speech, 1937 (called for economic quarantine of aggressors v isolationism)

7 Appeasement Policy of European countries, towards threats to peace, despite strength of allied armies – why??? – Anschluss (Austria) 1938 – Hitler demanded Sudentenland (Czechoslovakia), 1938 – Munich Pact, Sept Neville Chamberlain (UK) Eduard Daladier (France) Hitler (Germany) Mussolini (Italy) “Peace in our time!”

8 US Response to Appeasement Buenos Aires Conference, 1936 (threat to one country in Western Hemisphere a threat to all) Canada was brought under Monroe Doctrine, 1938 Declaration of Lima, 1938: American nations agreed on common action, in crisis

9 European War, 1939 Hitler took rest of Czech, March 1939 Italy attacked Albania, April 1939 Germany & USSR sign Non- Aggression Pact, Aug Poland attacked by Germans, Soviets Sept. 1, 1939

10 American Response Neutrality Act of 1939 – “Cash & carry” on munitions, for Allies (FDR influenced) – Germany designated as the aggressor Declaration of Panama, Oct – 300 mile “safety zone” declared around Western Hemisphere nations Smith Act, 1940 – Illegal to advocate overthrow of US government Draft reinstated, Sept. 1940

11 Lend-Lease US program to supply allies with war supplies, from March 1941 to 1945 – US shipped a total of $50.1 billion (almost $700 billion, in 2007 dollars) to Britain, USSR, France, China – In return, US received about $7.8 billion (about $100 billion in 2007 dollars) worth of military bases in Newfoundland, Caribbean US received no other repayment - & did not seek any repayment

12 America’s Entry into the War July 1941: Japan seized Indo- China July 1941: America froze Japanese assets, established embargo on oil, gas, etc. Nov. 1941: Japanese peace mission Dec. 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor attacked (2,896 casualties, over 2100 deaths; 8 BB sunk or heavily damaged) attacked War declared on Dec. 8, retroactive to Dec. 7declared


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