Presentation on theme: "What were Hitler’s steps in Foreign Policy, 1938 – 1939 and how did Chamberlain and Britain respond? By the end of this lesson you: C – Can describe the."— Presentation transcript:
What were Hitler’s steps in Foreign Policy, 1938 – 1939 and how did Chamberlain and Britain respond? By the end of this lesson you: C – Can describe the events of the Sudeten Crisis, the Munich Conference, the Czech Crisis and the Nazi Soviet Pact. B – Can explain the events of the Sudeten Crisis, the Munich Conference, the Czech Crisis and the Nazi Soviet Pact. A – Can explain, link and prioritise the events of the Sudeten Crisis, the Munich Conference, the Czech Crisis and the Nazi Soviet Pact.
Appeasement 1.What was it? 2.Why did British governments adopt the policy in the 1930s?
REASONS: -Sudetenland contained 3 million Germans. -Contained 75% of Czechoslovakia’s industry. -Hitler wanted to control Cz to avoid a war on two fronts if he fought a war on Germany’s Western Front. -Thought USSR might invade G through Cz. -He wanted WEALTH and LEBENSRAUM.
Title: Sudetenland Crisis EVENTS: -Hitler encouraged Cz Nazi Party leader, Henlein to stir up trouble in Sudetenland. -German newspapers published stories that Cz officials had committed atrocities against Sudeten Germans. -Hitler said he use military force if no solution found. -Cz did not want to give up Sudetenland – because of industry and defences. Thought they would get support from French allies. -Chamberlain intervened and attended 3 meetings in September to try to achieve compromise (Berchtesgaden, Godesberg, Munich)
Title: Sudetenland Crisis RESULTS: MUNICH CONFERENCE: -Chamberlain and Mussolini persuaded Hitler to put off invasion of Sudetenland and attend an international conference. GB, G, Fr and It were at conference – NOT Cz. -Sudetenland was given to Germany – countries agreed to GUARANTEE Cz’s new borders. -Chamberlain and Hitler agreed the Anglo-German declaration which was an agreement between Germany and GB to settle differences through talks – never to go to war again.
Results of the Munich Conference Title: Results of the Munich Conference Cz - deserted by their allies, lost resources and defences against G. GB – relief at avoiding war, Chamberlain heroic. Gave GB time to re-arm. Fr – relief at avoiding war. Gave Fr time to re-arm. G – Hitler more confident than ever that GB and Fr would not stop him if he invaded Poland. USSR – Stalin angry at not being invited to conference. It – Mussolini supported Hitler during crisis, the countries became closer, resulting in 1939 Pact of Steel.
The End of Czechoslovakia Kristallnacht in November 1938 caused great concern in GB. Hitler stated his ambition to take control of the rest of Cz. Hitler put pressure on new Cz leader, Hacha, and threatened invasion. Hacha ‘invited’ in German troops to restore order (although there was no disorder). Germany took control of Cz without breaking international law.
Danzig and the Polish Corridor March 1939 – Hitler took Memel from Lithuania. GB was concerned G would try to take more land it lost at Versailles, including the ‘Polish Corridor’ and the city of Danzig. GB ‘guaranteed’ Poland’s borders on 30 th March 1939. April – Italy occupied Albania. GB and Fr guaranteed the borders of Greece and Romania. May – Germany and Italy signed the Pact of Steel, Hitler was now more confident of taking ALL of Poland.
Danzig and the Polish Corridor Hitler thought GB and Fr would not fight Germany over Poland unless they could rely on support of the Soviet Union. Stalin of the Soviet Union wanted to make a pact with Britain, but Chamberlain were slow to respond. Instead the Soviet Union (Molotov - foreign minister) made a pact with Germany (Ribbentrop – foreign minister).
Nazi-Soviet Pact Agreed not to support any third country if attacked by it. Promised not to join an alliance aimed at the other. Secretly agreed to invade and divide Poland. Allowed Soviet Union to invade and take over Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Outbreak of War On 1 September 1939 German troops invaded Poland. Hitler was now very confident – he knew the Soviet Union would not support Britain and France. Britain and France issued an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of German troops from Poland. Germany ignored this and Britain and France declared war on 3 September.