Presentation on theme: "Hitler’s Foreign Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hitler’s Foreign Policy The Munich Crisis and the question of appeasement
2 Hitler’s Foreign Policy was built on three aims To reverse the Treaty of VersaillesTo create a “Greater Germany” by uniting all German speaking peopleThe creation of Lebensraum - living space for the German people.
3 LEBENSRAUMHitler’s Greater Germany would have a population of over 85 million peopleGermany’s land would be insufficient to feed this many peopleHitler intended to expand eastward towards Poland and RussiaRussians and Poles were Slavs-Hitler believed them to be inferior and so Germany was entitled to take their land.
4 Creation of a Greater Germany Hitler wanted a single homeland for all German speaking peopleAfter Versailles millions of Germans were living in Foreign countriesThe Treaty of Versailles had forbidden the union of Germany and Austria- The Anschluss
5 APPEASEMENTA policy aimed to prevent aggressors from starting wars by finding out what they want and agreeing to demands that seem reasonableNeville Chamberlain was the British Prime Minister that negotiated with Hitler in 1938
6 THE MUNICH AgreementIn September 1938, Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, met Adolf Hitler at his home in Berchtesgaden. Hitler threatened to invade Czechoslovakia unless Britain supported Germany's plans to takeover the Sudetenland.After discussing the issue with the In September 1938, Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, met Adolf Hitler at his home in Berchtesgaden. Hitler threatened to invade Czechoslovakia unless Britain supported Germany's plans to takeover the Sudetenland.After discussing the issue with the Edouard Daladier (France) and Eduard Benes (Czechoslovakia), Chamberlain informed Hitler that his proposals were unacceptable. (France) and Eduard Benes (Czechoslovakia), Chamberlain informed Hitler that his proposals were unacceptable.
7 THE MUNICH AgreementThe meeting took place in Munich on 29th September, Desperate to avoid war, and anxious to avoid an alliance with Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union, Neville Chamberlain and Edouard Daladier agreed that Germany could have the Sudetenland. In return, Hitler promised not to make any further territorial demands in Europe.On 29th September, 1938, Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier and Benito Mussolini signed the Munich Agreement which transferred the Sudetenland to Germany.
8 THE MUNICH AGREEMENTIn March, 1939, the German Army seized the rest of Czechoslovakia. In taking this action Adolf Hitler had broken the Munich Agreement. The British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain, now realized that Hitler could not be trusted and his appeasement policy now came to an end.
9 BRITAIN AND APPEASEMENT Most politicians wanted to avoid warThe people of Britain wanted to avoid warBritain had only a small army and airforceMany people thought of the Sudetenland in the same way they had about AustriaWinston Churchill did not agree but he was in a minority.
10 The results of Appeasement Europe saved from war? Possibly though some historians that if the Czechs, French, British and Russians had stood up to Hitler he would have been defeated, and would have faced war on two frontsCzechoslovakia was abandoned, and weakened by the loss of important military defences and resourcesGermany gained the Sudetenland- another step towards the Greater Germany.Britain and France gained time to build up their armed forces, but so did GermanyHitler decided Britain and France were unlikely ever to oppose him by forceStalin was offended at being excluded from the talks and decided he could not rely on Britain to help the USSR stand up against Germany
12 BACKGROUNDStalin had been very worried about German threats to the Soviet Union since Hitler came to power in 1933Hitler had openly stated that he wanted Soviet land for his LebensraumStalin tried to create alliances with Britain and France but to no availIn 1934 Stalin took the USSR into the League of Nations as a guarantee against German aggression.
13 The League Of NationsStalin gained no satisfaction from the League. Instead he saw failuresAbyssiniaSpanish Civil WarGerman rearmament
14 Britain and France France: Britain: Stalin signed a pact with France in 1935He did not trust the French to keep to it- especially after RhinelandBritain:Some welcomed a strong Germany as a force to fight Communism.Communism was seen as a bigger threat than Hitler
15 The Munich Agreement This agreement made Stalin even more wary Stalin was not consulted about the agreementStalin concluded that Britain and France were powerless to stop HitlerOr that they were happy for Hitler to take over Eastern Europe and the USSR
16 The Next MovesDespite misgivings Stalin was still prepared to talk to Britain and France about an allianceThe three countries met in March 1939Chamberlain was reluctant to commit BritainStalin believed that Britain and France made things worse by guaranteeing to defend Poland if it were attackedChamberlain saw the guarantee as a warning to HitlerStalin saw it as support for a potential enemy.
17 The deed is done!On 24 August 1939 Stalin made his decision and signed a pact with GermanyThe world was shocked as two arch enemies promised not to attack each other.Privately they also agreed to divide Poland
18 Why did Stalin sign the pact? Stalin was not convinced that Britain and France would be strong and reliable allies against HitlerHe also wanted large parts of eastern PolandHe did not believe that Hitler would keep his word. He wanted time to build up his forces.
19 Invasion of PolandOn September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. The Polish army was defeated within weeks of the invasion.Britain and France, standing by their guarantee of Poland's border, had declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939.The Soviet Union invaded eastern Poland on September 17, 1939.In October 1939, Germany directly annexed those former Polish territories along German's eastern border: West Prussia, Poznan, Upper Silesia, and the former Free City of Danzig.
20 WORLD WAR TWOGermany (Hitler) and Russia (Stalin) and Italy (Mussolini) VS Britain (Chamberlain), Daladier (France) Same old story – remember World War One