Objectives At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: Identify Adolph Hitler and list characteristics of his background List reasons for German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles Give examples of who supported the Nazis and why
How did the Treaty of Versailles (ended WWI) punish Germany? Germany had to: Pay reparations Lost territory Had to disarm Forced to sign War Guilt Clause IE. They were humiliated Greatest cause of WWII
Who was Adolph Hitler? Born in Austria (1889) Fuhrer (leader) of Germany from 1933-1945 Struggling artist in Munich & Vienna (early 1900s) Fought for Germany in WWI Developed hatred for “November Criminals” and the “Stab in the back” Joined small National Socialist German Workers party (Nazis) in 1921 –Anti-Semitic –Anti-Communist –Anti-Versailles –Pro Germany Imprisoned for coup on Weimar government in 1923 Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
The Great Depression &Hitler’s Rise Hitler’s Rise to Power
Today’s Objectives How did the Great Depression affect Germany? How did it help the Nazis rise to power? How did Hitler gain dictatorial power? What did the Nazis believe in? How did the Schmeling Lewis fight reflect the battle between Nazism and democracy?
How did Hitler gain power? Who supported him? Germany was devastated by the Great Depression –36 % unemployment in 1933 –Banking system collapsed –Hyperinflation destroyed savings of middle class Weimar Republic was hated Nazi party appealed to broad coalition of people –Soldiers, workers, factory owners, nationalists Held rallies, marched in parades, gave speeches Utilized mass media (radio and film) to solidify power & brainwash German people German mother using Deutsch marks for firewood Brownshirt Parade
Describe the steps Hitler took to become the totalitarian dictator of Germany by August ‘34. Nazis won most seats in Reichstag in election of 1932 Hitler appointed Chancellor 1933 Fire at Reichstag blamed on political opponents Got Hindenburg (the president) to suspend civil rights (temporarily) –Free of speech, press illegal Hindenburg died in March ‘33 Got Reichstag (Congress) to give him power to make his own laws Got military to swear allegiance to him Aug. ’34 abolished presidency and declared himself Fuehrer (supreme leader) "I swear by God this sacred oath that I will obey without question the Führer of the German Reich and people, to Adolf Hitler, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, and that I am prepared as a brave soldier to lay my life on the line at any time for this oath."
Describe the NAZIS program. Extreme nationalism Rearmament –Ignore Treaty of Versailles and rebuild military Master Race (Ubermensch- supermen) –Blond-haired, blue-eyed Aryans were chosen people –God-given right and duty to spread Aryan people and culture Based on Nietzsche's philosophy –Untermensch (subhumans) Jews, Gypsies, handicapped, & undesirables eliminated Fatherland –Germans under foreign rule must be reunited with Germany Lebensraum (living space) Germans need land to thrive “You Are Sharing the Load! A Hereditarily Ill Person Costs 50,000 Reichsmarks on Average up to the Age of Sixty,” reproduced in a high school biology textbook by Jakob Graf. The image illustrates Nazi propaganda on the need to prevent births of the “unfit.”
Jesse Owens & the 1936 Berlin Olympics Presentation
Review Greatest cause of WWII Hitler’s country of birth Disparaging name for Weimar Republic How was Germany affected by the Great Depression? What the NAZIS believe in What is rearmament? Define Lebensraum Describe Nietzsche's philosophy What is Ubermensch, Untermensch?
Let’s Put 1930s Germany into Psychological Context
Today’s Agenda Finish 13.1 Discuss any Presentation or Paper issues Begin 13.2 Homework Finish Newspaper headline, subheading Write a paragraph explaining details of photograph
Today’s Objectives Mr. Morris, I won’t be able to sleep tonight unless I can: Describe how Mussolini created a totalitarian dictatorship in Italy Explain how the Spanish Civil War was dress rehearsal for WWII Define Aunchluss and explain how Hitler took control of Austria Define “appeasement” and this policy led to WWII
How did Hitler justify the murder of his political enemies? Manufactured a “National Emergency” –Set a fire at Reichstag & blamed his political enemies Reeducated some –Sent them to Dachau concentration camp –Used concentration camps to “reeducate” enemies Murdered others –Used the S.A. (Storm Troopers) Hitler said that he presided over the Third Reich of Germany –Reich (Reign) Start of Nazi totalitarianism
Describe how Mussolini & the fascist created a totalitarian dictatorship in Italy? Wounded Italian vet of WWI Created Fascist Party –Reactionary party that preached the nation and race above individual Black Shirts –Mussolini’s “thugs” who intimidated, murdered political enemies (Castor Oil) March on Rome –Black Shirts intimidated King to appoint Mussolini prime minister of Italy ‘IL Duce’ (the leader) –Promised order, efficient government that would restore Italy’s power Totalitarian Dictatorship –Fascist gained near-complete control over all facets of Italian life Press, education, art, economy Role model for Hitler
What was the Spanish Civil War? Anti-Communist Fascist general Francisco Franco attacked democratic (socialist) government Civil War broke out Mussolini and Hitler helped Franco with weapons –Bombed nonmilitary town of Guernica in April 1937 –Image of horror captured by Picasso Abraham Lincoln Brigade –3, 000 Americans volunteered to fight for democratic gov. –Why? –“And after France?” “Dress rehearsal for WWII” Guernica, Picasso
Hitler’s Road to War 19181921192319281931 1933193819391941 Hitler leads unsucessful Coup -NAZI party gains seats in Reichstag -Wall Street Crashes (1929) Hitler appointed Chancellor -Becomes Fuehrer when Hindenburg dies -Germany signs Non Aggression Pact with USSR -Hitler invades Poland -WW I Ends -Treaty of Versailles German economy in hyperinflation -Mein Kampf General Franco seizes power from Socialists in Spain -Hitler later sends military aid Hitler takes Austria and Sudentenland Munich Pact brings “Peace for our time.” NOT
What aggressive moves did Hitler make in 1938? How did he justify this? Claimed that Austrian gov. was persecuting Nazi supporters there & that chaos had broken out German Nazi’s forged a letter requesting Germans invade in order to restore order Anschluss (Linkage) –Hitler invaded Austria March 1938 –Took over Austria without firing a shot
What is appeasement and what would Winston Churchill think of it? In Aug. 1938 Hitler claimed Germans living in Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia were oppressed Threatened invasion Czech. Had alliance with Britain/France Appeasement (to pacify) –England & France gave in to Hitler’s demands in return for peace Munich Pact (9/1938) –Treaty b/t British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain & Hitler –Germany got Sudetenland & promised no further territorial demands Chamberlain claimed “Peace for our time” 5.5 months later Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia
“Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.” Winston Churchill
Write a headline and subheading for this photograph. Neville Chamberlain, September 1938
Today’s Agenda Collect Headline and paragraph Finish 13.1
Mr. Morris, I won’t be a cool person unless I am able to: Define the Molotov Ribbentrop Pact and state why it was important to Germany State why Japan wanted to expand its borders into the Asian mainland Describe why America was against Japan’s invasion of China State what the Neutrality Acts were and what FDR did to undermine them Describe the events of September 1, 1939?
What was the Nonaggression Pact? AKA : Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Treaty between Germany and USSR in which each country pledged not to attack the other (Aug. 23, 1939) Would free up Hitler’s troops from fighting a two-front war Treaty secretly divided up Poland between Germany and USSR Shocked the World –Fascism’s antithesis is communism
Why did Japan want to expand its borders into the Asian mainland? Wanted to make Japan self- sufficient –Lacked land, raw materials Wanted living space Samurai Tradition –Military most honored members of Japanese society –viewed conquest as heroic deed Manchuria (China) –poorly defended and rich in natural resources Japan created excuse for war –Invaded & renamed it “Manchukuo” in Sept. 1932
Why was America against Japan’s invasion of China? Sympathized with Chinese peasant –hardships popularized in novel, The Good Earth Japan an economic threat –Close Chinese market to American business –Loss of $100 million in cotton sales Rape of Nanking (Dec-Jan. 1937-38) –Mass murder & rape of Chinese civilians in Nanking –100 of thousands executed –20 to 80 thousand women “systematically” raped –outraged American public
What were the Neutrality Acts and what did FDR think of them? Laws that prohibited the sale of American weapons to warring nations Tried to prevent Americans from traveling to those countries FDR didn’t like them but American public was isolationist Military not ready for a fight yet –Ranked 18 th in the world (behind Belgium)
What happened on September 1, 1939? Hitler invaded Poland 9/1/39 –Hitler demanded the Polish Corridor (large German population) Aug. ’39 –Poland refused Blitzkrieg –“Lightning War” –New offensive technique of attack overwhelmed Poland Soviet Union invaded Poland from the East on Sept. 17 Poland collapsed in 1 month British and French declared war on Germany Sept. 3 rd World War II had begun