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The World in Crisis Chapter 12.1. Agenda for Today Return Test 12.1 Slide Show Homework Read Section 12.2 of textbook.

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Presentation on theme: "The World in Crisis Chapter 12.1. Agenda for Today Return Test 12.1 Slide Show Homework Read Section 12.2 of textbook."— Presentation transcript:

1 The World in Crisis Chapter 12.1

2 Agenda for Today Return Test 12.1 Slide Show Homework Read Section 12.2 of textbook

3 Warsaw, Poland 1939

4 Warsaw, Poland 1944

5 How could this happen?

6 Objectives At the end of this lesson, you should be able to: Identify Adolph Hitler and his background List reasons for German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles Give examples of who supported the Nazis and why

7 How did the Treaty of Versailles (ended WWI) punish Germany? Germany had to: Pay reparations Lost territory Had to disarm Forced to sign War Guilt Clause

8 Who was Adolph Hitler? Born in Austria (1889) Fuhrer (leader) of Germany from Struggling artist in Munich & Vienna (early 1900s) Fought for Germany in WWI Developed hated for “November Criminals” and the “Stab in the back” Joined small German Workers party (Nazis) in 1921 –Anti-Semitic –Anti-Communist –Anti-Versailles –Pro Germany Imprisoned for coup on Weimar government in 1923 Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

9 How did Hitler gain power? Who supported him? Read the case study you were given and write: The author’s social class or occupation Reasons why he supports Hitler and the Nazis

10 Describe Hitler’s methods of propaganda.

11 Herman Struts A German Army Lieutenant Deeply resents Treaty of Versailles –Weimar Republic Can’t get promoted Army disrespected

12 Karin Hauptman Union worker in a Textile Factory Fears communism Wants stronger unions that respect seniority Wants stable economy

13 Eric von Ronheim Factory Executive Resents Treaty of Versailles (reparations) High taxes Crippled German economy Fears communist takeover

14 Karl Schmidt Ruhr Valley Steelworker Wants a job Resents French occupation of Ruhr Resents wealthy capitalists

15 Lotte von Kohler Attorney Resents demeaning attitude of the Allies (French) towards Germany Wants German race and culture recognized for its greatness

16 Wilhelm Schultz East Prussian Peasant Resents Versailles for loss of “Polish Corridor” Cuts him off from relatives Poles mistreat Germans Hinders trade Fear communist will take land

17 Hitler’s Rise Hitler’s Rise to Power

18 Describe the steps Hitler took to become the totalitarian dictator of Germany by August of /1932 Nazis won most seats in Reichstag Hitler appointed Chancellor Jan 1933 Got Hindenburg (the president) to suspend civil rights Got Reichstag to give him power to make his own laws Got military to swear allegiance to him Aug. ’34 abolished presidency and declared himself Fuehrer (supreme leader)

19 Describe the NAZIS program. NAZIS- National Socialist German Workers Party Eliminate differences between rich and poor Ignore Treaty of Versailles Preached Germans (Blond-haired, blue-eyed) Aryans were chosen people (Master Race) Jews and ‘undesirables’ were to be eliminated Germans under foreign rule to be reunited with the Fatherland Lebensraum (living space) acquired

20 Germany’s Economic Recovery German Rearmament

21 How did Hitler justify the murder of his political enemies? Used occasion of a fire at Reichstag to blame his political enemies Referred to them with words like “traitor, poison” Said he did it to save the “German people and the German Reich” Used the S.A. (Storm Troopers) to intimidate, imprison, murder political foes

22 Fire at the Reichstag

23 Describe FDR’s foreign policy in 1933? Americans were too preoccupied with the GD to pay attention to Hitler Continued isolationist posture Good Neighbor Policy (1933) US pledged not to interfere with internal affairs of Latin American countries Non-interventionists wanted America to stay out of Europe’s troubles

24 Describe how Benito Mussolini and the fascist created a totalitarian dictatorship in Italy? How did Italians and Americans view him? Wounded vet of WWI Order, efficient government that would restore Italy’s rightful place as dominant power of Mediterranean Called himself ‘IL Duce’ (the leader) Fascist- party that preached the nation and race above individual Black Shirts -used intimidation to gain power Totalitarian Dictatorship- complete control over all facets of Italian life Viewed by many as ‘model of strength and determination’ Created new social and economic programs Trains ran on time, 400 new bridges, 4 thousand miles of roads Invaded and took over Ethiopia Mussolini 1933 by Diego Rivera from DR MuseumDR Museum

25 Mussolini and Fascism

26 Hitler Becomes Chancellor

27 Why did many Americans fight against Franco in the Spanish Civil War? 1931 monarchy replaced by democratically elected left wing government Fascist opposition from Anti- Communist Francisco Franco Civil War breaks out Mussolini and Hitler send aid to Franco and test new weapons. 3, 000 Americans (Abraham Lincoln Brigade) join democratic gov. Feared the spread of fascism –“And after France?” Foreshadowing of fascist aggression to come. Guernica, Picasso

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29 What aggressive moves did Hitler make in 1938? How did he justify this? March 1938 he took Austria Aug he said he was going to take the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia Said he wanted to defend German speaking people against the oppression of the Czechs What would the French and British do?

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31 What is appeasement and what would Winston Churchill think of it? England and France gave in to Hitler’s demands in return for peace (Appeasement) Munich Pact (9/1938) British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain allowed Hitler to have Sudetenland in return for no further territorial acquisitions “Peace for our time” 51/2 months later Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia

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33 What was the Nonaggression Pact? Why was it important to Hitler? Called the Molotov- Ribbentrop Pact Treaty between Germany and USSR in which each country pledged not to attack the other (Aug. 23, 1939) Would free up Hitler’s troops from fighting a two-front war Treaty secretly divided up Poland between Germany and USSR

34 Why did Japan want to expand its borders into the Asian mainland? Wanted to make Japan self- sufficient Lacked land for agriculture, raw materials (wheat, petroleum, rubber, coal, iron, timber) Wanted living space for growing population Military most honored members of Japanese society Viewed conquest as heroic deed Manchuria was poorly defended and rich in natural resources –Occupied “Manchukuo” by 9/1932

35 Hitler’s Road to War Hitler leads unsucessful Coup -NAZI party gains seats in Reichstag -Wall Street Crashes (1929) Hitler appointed Chancellor -Becomes Fuehrer when Hindenburg dies -Germany signs Non Aggression Pact with USSR -Hitler invades Poland -WW I Ends -Treaty of Versailles German economy in hyperinflation -Mein Kamf General Franco seizes power from Socialists in Spain -Hitler later sends military aid Hitler takes Austria and Sudentenland Munich Pact brings “Peace for our time.” NOT Hitler invades Russia

36 Why was America against Japan’s invasion of China? American public sympathized with Chinese peasant (hardships popularized in The Good Earth) Japan would become an economic threat Close Chinese market to American business (lose $100 million in cotton sales) Rape of Nanking (China Incident) viewed by Americans as “barbaric, disgraceful”

37 What were the Neutrality Acts and what did FDR think of them? Laws that prohibited the sale of American weapons to warring nations Tried to prevent Americans from traveling to those countries FDR didn’t like them but American public was isolationist Military not ready for a fight yet Ranked 18 th in the world (behind Belgium)

38 “Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.” Winston Churchill

39 What happened on September 1, 1939? In Aug. ’39 Hitler demanded the Polish Corridor (large German population) Poland refused Hitler invaded Poland Began World War II First time Blitzkrieg “Lightning War” was used Why did he think he could get away with this? What events led to this moment?

40 WWII Begins


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