2Aims and ObjectivesTo recap our work on the different views on propaganda and how they helped solidify the reign of the Nazi’sTo look into the ‘Hitler Myth’ and decide for ourselves what type of leadership Hitler gave
3What was the ‘Hitler Myth’ The Hitler Myth is a concept which embodies two key points in Nazi ideologyFirstly it presents Hitler as a demigod figure, who both embodies and shapes the German people and thus giving him a mandate to ruleSecondly it presents Hitler as a mighty defender of the German people against its foes, who merely wanted to redress the imbalance evoked at the Treaty of Versailles.These two elements were demonstrated in propaganda of the time and have helped to 'plaster over' early cracks in the Nazi Regime's façadeThe myth of Hitler as the Saviour of Germany from conspiracies directed against it by the Soviet Union and the West - especially France - was an extremely powerful tool in binding together the German people in loyalty and submission
4The HITLER MYTHAll would agree that Hitler dominated Germany from 1933 to Although there is debate surrounding how he exercised such power.After the Enabling Act he was able to issue decrees, but in addition his wishes and even interpretations of his wishes served as laws (idea of working towards the Fuhrer/will of the Fuhrer).Hitler’s power rested on a his unique relationship with the German people and not really on a formal position within the system of government.This leadership principle (Fuhrerprinzip) which was applied to the party in the 20s was applied to Germany.Helped by a powerful propaganda machine Hitler built up a form of charismatic leadership sustained by a powerful Hitler myth.Ian Kershaw’s the ‘Hitler myth’.
5Ian Kershaw"Hitler stood for at least some things they [German people] admired, and for many had become the symbol and embodiment of the national revival which the Third Reich had in many respects been perceived to accomplish."The myth was lent much credence by Hitler's huge successes in the regeneration of Germany's economy over just a few years, recovering it from what seemed like unredeemable circumstances. In 1932, one year before Hitler's rise to power, unemployment had been at over five and a half million, but by 1938 Germany was producing at record levels, and unemployment was below 200,000 and real wages were up for the first time since authoritarianism
6Where did power lie in the Third Reich? Hitler?Traditional Institutions?Nazi Party?SS?Gestapo?
7Hitler’s relationship with the German people Which view best summarises the view of prominent Nazis?Hitler is an absolute dictator who is free to do whatever he wants.Hitler is all powerful because he represents the will of the people.Hitler has to act according to popular wishes.
8How powerful was Hitler? There is huge debate as to what kind of dictator Hitler was, we are going to look at the power structure of Nazi Germany and decide as a group whether or not we think Hitler was a ‘strong’ or a ‘weak’ dictator
9TaskLook at the information on pages 184 – 190 to gather information on how you might answer the type of question ‘Hitler didn’t influence a huge amount of Nazi Policy’ to what extent do you agree with this view (24 Marks)Answer the activity questions on page 186 (Numbers 1-3) to help you with your studiesLook to categorise your evidence into the three views espoused on page 190
10Discussion Points How were decisions taken in Nazi Germany? Absolute monarch / Officials in competition with each other / Fuhrer’s Will / Hitler personally uninvolved / Dislike of in-depth policy / Role of the Chancellery / difficulties in trying to recreate Hitler’s will /Different schools of thought – Strong / Weak / MixedThe Hitler Myth / Will of the Fuhrer contributing to the radicalisation / downfall of the Reich?
11Explain why the Nazi regime tried to control information and propaganda in the years 1933 to 1939 (12 marks)The first steps after the Nazis came into power, especially the campaign for the elections of March 1933 (the Reichstag fire, for example)The moves towards Gleichschaltung in 1933, such as the Reich Press Law and the suppression of independent newspapers; and the establishment of the Reich Chamber of Culture to control the artsThe role of Goebbels and the propaganda ministry from 1933 – the development of mass radio listeningThe intimidation of opponents – e.g. the Rõhm Purge of 1934 and the Nuremberg Laws of 1935The impact of the 1936 Olympic Games, e.g. through film and televisionThe impact of Reichskristallnacht in 1938
12The Role of GoebbelsCreation of the Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda – March 1933#Strengthening support for the regimes policies and acheivementsEstablished a Reich Culture Chamber to ‘promote German culture for the benefit of the Volk and the ReichState control of the pressUse of RadioPromotion of Films such as the ‘Triumph of the Will’ (1935) that relived the glory of the 1934 Nuremberg Rally and Leni Riefenstahl’s two part ‘Olympia’ whilst others were used for negative stereotypes such as the ‘Eternal Jew’Photographs / Posters / Sport / Festivals / Rallies
13Culture as Propaganda Paintings – Heroic idealisations Modern art considered ‘degenerate’ and replaced by clear visual images that could be understoodAll artists had to have licences from the Reich Culture Chamber and importantly could have these taken away at any timeSculpturesArchitecture – ‘The word in stone’Literature / Book Burnings / Exiled novelistsTheatre –Music – Wagner & Strauss promoted as Hitler’s favourites
14How successful was Nazi propaganda? Why might this be a tricky question to answer?Herzstein – important role in strengthening popular support for the regime.Mason – more sceptical especially in relation to the working class.Welch – argues that you need to separate different stands of propaganda – successful in overall support for Hitler – varied success in relation to other policies. Also adds that it was successful in reinforcing existing attitudes rather than countering views.Geary – successful when it played on traditional prejudices and values.
15How Successful was Nazi Propaganda? On the one hand……On the other….