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Overview of Advance Behavior Analysis Week 1: Providing a foundation.

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1 Overview of Advance Behavior Analysis Week 1: Providing a foundation

2 What is The Purpose of Science? Describe Predict Control Explain?

3 Attitudes of Science Determinism: Laws govern the universe Empiricism: Show me the data Experimentation: Correlations are not enough Replication: Do it again Parsimony: Simpler is correct Philosophic Doubt: Skeptical and open minded

4 Definition of Science Systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena as evidenced by description, prediction and control that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its prime directive, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as its necessary requirement for believability, parsimony as its conservative value and philosophic doubt as it guiding conscience.

5 Brief History of Behavior Analysis Watson (1913): Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it (Watson) – S-R Psychology Skinner (1938): Behavior of Organisms – S-R-S psychology – Not structural, Not Methodological Applied Behavior Analysis – Fuller (1949) – Vegetative Idiots work for sugar milk – Ayllon & Michael (1959): Psychiatric Nurse as Behavioral Engineer

6 3 types of Behaviorism Structural: Thoughts don’t exist Methodological: Thoughts Exist but are not important Radical: Thoughts are behavior

7 Characteristics of: Applied Behavior Analysis Applied: Social Significant Behavioral: Observable & Measurable Analytic: Can Demonstrate Control

8 Additional Characteristics of ABA Technological: Detailed & Clarity to allow replication Conceptually systematic: Explain results from principles Effective: Changes to a practical degree Generality Accountable, Public, Doable, Empowering, Optimistic

9 Definition of Applied Behavior Analysis Science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to indentify the variables responsible for behavior change.

10 ABA is not: A “treatment” for autism Dead but perhaps dying? Cruel or inhumane

11 Basic Concepts

12 Behavior Portion of an organisms interaction with its environment that results in measurable change in the environment – Response is used instead of behavior for specific instances of a behavior. – Essentially anything a dead person cannot do (be careful). – Important: All behavior serves a function

13 Reinforcement Increases probability of behavior Follows a response Is contingent upon behavior (caveat – NCR) – Positive: Adding a stimulus – Negative: Removal of a stimulus

14 Punishment Decreases probability of behavior Follows a response Is Contingent upon behavior – Positive (type I): Adding a stimulus – Negative (Type II): Removal of a stimulus

15 Why a Functional Approach? Diagnosis – Lacks intervention utility – Results in admiration of a problem – Diffuses responsibility of a problem Intervention Prescription – Topography-based: Out of seat – Case Based-based: Brother – Preference-based: they love candy

16 What is a Functional Assessment? Behavior serves a function (it works for the person) Your job is to identify the function using systematic methods

17 Errors to watch out for during FBA Error of association – It only happens with mama Error of perception – Recency: Should have seen him today – Primacy: functions of past are not always functions today Error of misplace precision – Data types are important

18 Additional Errors to lookout for during FBA Error of inaccurate FBA – Effects of consequences can be deceiving Error of exaggeration – It always happens when…..Really? Error of generalization – All do the same behavior for the same reason (i.e. function). Intervention Brainstorming Caution! – Can lead to premature implementation

19 General FBA Steps Conduct Comprehensive FBA Link the FBA to the intervention Implement the Intervention Objectively evaluate the intervention

20 3 Types of FBA Indirect: – verbal reports & rating scales – Identify/describe behavior – Generate hypothesis only Direct: – Indirect FBA Plus Systematic Observation – Stronger hypotheses generated objectively Functional Analysis: – Experimental manipulations – Attempting to support hypotheses

21 Empirical Evaluation of Ellis Reducing inappropriate self talk: 46% Reducing emotional distress: 27% No effect on actual behavior Gossette and O’Brien (1992) √ Effects probably due to homework assignments, not the challenge of cognition.

22 Let’s Add Cognitive Restructuring! Let’s not! – 83% of research suggests it adds nothing! – Helpful for social anxiety only

23 Empirical Evaluation of Beck No better than a placebo (placebo may be effective!) [NIMH, 1989] - 55% BT, 52% IPT, 46% CT, 34% BDPT (Agency for health care policy and research, 1994)

24 Behavioral vs. Cognitive 83% of pure cognitive had no added benefit. √ Cognitive good for social-anxiety and phobia

25 Two Points Cognitive techniques rely on rule-governed behavior Rules control behavior only when linked to environmental contingencies

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