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Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Second Edition Chapter 2 The Nature and Measurement of Crime.

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Presentation on theme: "Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Second Edition Chapter 2 The Nature and Measurement of Crime."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mainstream and Crosscurrents, Second Edition Chapter 2 The Nature and Measurement of Crime

2 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 2 Categories of offenses and offenders Offenses against the person: Homicide, sexual assault, robbery, and assault. Offenses against property: Burglary, arson, embezzlement, larceny/theft, and auto theft. Offenses against the public order: Drug use, disturbing the peace, drunkenness, and prostitution.

3 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 3 Offenses against the person The most serious penalties are reserved for these offenses. Motivations include: Interpersonal disputes Instrumental violence Group violence Chronic violent offenders Political violence Rape and sexual assault Robbery

4 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 4 Offenses against property Burglary is different from larceny/theft. Motor vehicle theft involves only automobiles and trucks. Arson involves fires that are purposely set.

5 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 5 Offenses against property Burglary vs. larceny/theft Burglary involves the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. Larceny/theft involves the unlawful taking of another person's property.

6 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 6 Offenses against public order Some offenses involve no discernable victim. Victimless crimes involve consensual interactions or behaviors. Behaviors include: vagrancy, disorderly conduct, and liquor law violations.

7 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 7 Measurement of crime Not all offenses are reported. Offenses that occur but are not reported are called the dark figure of crime.

8 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 8 Measurement of crime A crime may not be reported for several reasons… An offense may be so subtle that it is never known to have happened. An offense may not be perceived as such. The offender is a family member, friend, or acquaintance.

9 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 9 Measurement of crime A crime may not be reported for several reasons… The victim believes the offense to be too trivial to report. The victim fears reprisal. The victim feels antipathy toward the police.

10 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 10 Measurement of crime The Dark Figure of Crime A metaphor that describes offenses that go unreported to police and criminal justice officials and is never quantified.

11 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 11 Measurement of crime The Dark Figure of Crime

12 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 12 Measurement of crime The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) The most extensive and useful measure of crime available. More than 17,500 city, county, and state law enforcement agencies voluntarily report crime data to this program. The program collects data on over 94% of the US population.

13 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 13 The Uniform Crime Reports FBI Classification of Offenses

14 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 14 In a multiple-offense situation, the law enforcement agency must determine which offense occurs highest in the violent crime/property crime hierarchy and record that offense. The Uniform Crime Reports The Hierarchy Rule

15 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 15 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Sources of error in the UCR… Unintentional Intentional

16 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 16 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Changes to the UCR In 2006, the FBI discontinued the Crime Index as it was found to poorly indicate the crime rate within jurisdictions. The FBI still calculates crime rates for individual offenses, violent offenses, and property offenses.

17 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 17 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Changes to the UCR Violent crimes Murder and non- negligent manslaughter Forcible rape Robbery Aggravated assault Property crimes Burglary Larceny-theft Motor vehicle theft Arson

18 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 18 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) What is meant by crime rate? The number of Crime Index offenses divided by the population of an area, usually given as a rate of crimes per 100,000 people.

19 Calculating the crime rate Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 19

20 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 20 CrossCurrents Measurement of crime The danger zone The FBI compiles the UCR so that the statistics can be used for administrative purposes, criminal justice research, and community planning. Do you agree with criminologists and the FBI that the UCR statistics should not be used to compile popular rankings?

21 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 21 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Constructed to to gather data on each criminal act even if several acts are committed within the same complex of behavior.

22 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 22 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) NIBRS Group A Offenses Arson Assault offenses Bribery Burglary/breaking and entering Counterfeiting/forgery Destruction/damage/ vandalism of property Drug/narcotic offenses Embezzlement Extortion/blackmail Fraud offenses Gambling offenses Homicide offenses Kidnapping/abduction Larceny/theft offenses Motor vehicle theft Pornography/obscene material Prostitution offenses Robbery Sex offenses, forcible Sex offenses, non-forcible rape Stolen-property offenses Weapon law violations

23 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 23 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) NIBRS Group B Offenses Liquor law violations "Peeping tom" Runaway Trespass of real property All other offenses  Bad checks  Curfew/loitering/vagrancy violations  Disorderly conduct  Driving under the influence  Drunkenness  Family offenses, nonviolent

24 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 24 Measurement of crime Victimization surveys A method for trying to ascertain the level of unreported crime. Victimization surveys ask victims of crime about their experiences.

25 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 25 Measurement of crime Self-report studies Individuals are asked to identify the types of offenses they have committed over the study period.

26 Measurement of crime What part of the crime picture do reporting methods miss or obscure? Corporate crime Organized crime Drug sales Prostitution and gambling Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 26

27 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 27 Measurement of Crime Measuring white-collar and corporate crime is difficult for several reasons... The UCR and NIBRS primarily reflect street crime. White-collar and corporate crime typically fall within federal jurisdiction. Much of the investigation and regulation of corporate and white-collar crime is done by regulatory agencies and professional associations.

28 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 28 Fear of crime According to Joel Best, perceptions of violence are constructed not by official measures of crime, but by the media, which can distort and sensationalize particular incidents.

29 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 29 Fear of crime Only the direct consumers of crime statistics are affected by crime-measuring limitations. Government funding agencies, law enforcement departments, and the media areconcerned with understanding the crime picture. Where does fear of crime come from? Is it justified?

30 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 30 CrossCurrents Fear of crime The social security check phenomenon Although the elderly might fear crime more than younger people, they actually experience less crime. Why would the elderly fear crime more than younger people?

31 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 31 Fear of crime Patternlessness Pointlessness Deterioration of society Best’s three popular conceptions that compose the idea of random violence...

32 Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents, 2/e John Randolph Fuller © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved. 32 Questions What are the three major types of offenses? What is the dark figure of crime? Calculate a crime rate.


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