Presentation on theme: "The Nature and Measurement of Crime"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Nature and Measurement of Crime Chapter 2The Nature andMeasurement of Crime
2 Categories of offenses and offenders Offenses against the person: Homicide, sexual assault, robbery, and assault.Offenses against property: Burglary, arson, embezzlement, larceny/theft, and auto theft.Offenses against the public order: Drug use, disturbing the peace, drunkenness, and prostitution.
3 Offenses against the person The most serious penalties are reserved for these offenses. Motivations include:Interpersonal disputesInstrumental violenceGroup violenceChronic violent offendersPolitical violenceRape and sexual assaultRobbery
4 Offenses against property Burglary is different from larceny/theft.Motor vehicle theft involves only automobiles and trucks.Arson involves fires that are purposely set.
5 Offenses against property Burglary vs. larceny/theft Burglary involves the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft.Larceny/theft involves the unlawful taking of another person's property.
6 Offenses against public order Some offenses involve no discernable victim.Victimless crimes involve consensual interactions or behaviors.Behaviors include: vagrancy, disorderly conduct, and liquor law violations.
7 Not all offenses are reported. Measurement of crimeNot all offenses are reported.Offenses that occur but are not reported are called the dark figure of crime.
8 Measurement of crime A crime may not be reported for several reasons… An offense may be so subtle that it is never known to have happened.An offense may not be perceived as such.The offender is a family member, friend, or acquaintance.
9 Measurement of crime A crime may not be reported for several reasons… The victim believes the offense to be too trivial to report.The victim fears reprisal.The victim feels antipathy toward the police.
10 Measurement of crime The Dark Figure of Crime A metaphor that describes offenses that go unreported to police and criminal justice officials and is never quantified.
12 Measurement of crime The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) The most extensive and useful measure of crime available.More than 17,500 city, county, and state law enforcement agencies voluntarily report crime data to this program.The program collects data on over 94% of the US population.
13 The Uniform Crime Reports FBI Classification of Offenses
14 The Uniform Crime Reports The Hierarchy Rule In a multiple-offense situation, the law enforcement agency must determine which offense occurs highest in the violent crime/property crime hierarchy and record that offense.
15 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Sources of error in the UCR… UnintentionalIntentional
16 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Changes to the UCR In 2006, the FBI discontinued the Crime Index as it was found to poorly indicate the crime rate within jurisdictions.The FBI still calculates crime rates for individual offenses, violent offenses, and property offenses.
17 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Changes to the UCR Property crimesBurglaryLarceny-theftMotor vehicle theftArsonViolent crimesMurder and non-negligent manslaughterForcible rapeRobberyAggravated assault
18 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) What is meant by crime rate? The number of Crime Index offenses divided by the population of an area, usually given as a rate of crimes per 100,000 people.
20 CrossCurrents Measurement of crime The danger zone The FBI compiles the UCR so that the statistics can be used for administrative purposes, criminal justice research, and community planning.Do you agree with criminologists and the FBI that the UCR statistics should not be used to compile popular rankings?
21 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) Constructed to to gather data on each criminal act even if several acts are committed within the same complex of behavior.
22 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) NIBRS Group A Offenses Homicide offensesKidnapping/abductionLarceny/theft offensesMotor vehicle theftPornography/obscene materialProstitution offensesRobberySex offenses, forcibleSex offenses, non-forcible rapeStolen-property offensesWeapon law violationsArsonAssault offensesBriberyBurglary/breaking and enteringCounterfeiting/forgeryDestruction/damage/ vandalism of propertyDrug/narcotic offensesEmbezzlementExtortion/blackmailFraud offensesGambling offenses
23 The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) NIBRS Group B Offenses Liquor law violations"Peeping tom"RunawayTrespass of real propertyAll other offensesBad checksCurfew/loitering/vagrancy violationsDisorderly conductDriving under the influenceDrunkennessFamily offenses, nonviolent
24 Measurement of crime Victimization surveys A method for trying to ascertain the level of unreported crime.Victimization surveys ask victims of crime about their experiences.
25 Measurement of crime Self-report studies Individuals are asked to identify the types of offenses they have committed over the study period.
27 The UCR and NIBRS primarily reflect street crime. Measurement of Crime Measuring white-collar and corporate crime is difficult for several reasons...The UCR and NIBRS primarily reflect street crime.White-collar and corporate crime typically fall within federal jurisdiction.Much of the investigation and regulation of corporate and white-collar crime is done by regulatory agencies and professional associations.
28 Fear of crimeAccording to Joel Best, perceptions of violence are constructed not by official measures of crime, but by the media, which can distort and sensationalize particular incidents.
29 Fear of crimeOnly the direct consumers of crime statistics are affected by crime-measuring limitations.Government funding agencies, law enforcement departments, and the media are concerned with understanding the crime picture.Where does fear of crime come from? Is it justified?
30 CrossCurrents Fear of crime The social security check phenomenon Although the elderly might fear crime more than younger people, they actually experience less crime.Why would the elderly fear crime more than younger people?
31 Fear of crimeBest’s three popular conceptions that compose the idea of random violence...PatternlessnessPointlessnessDeterioration of society
32 Questions What are the three major types of offenses? What is the dark figure of crime?Calculate a crime rate.