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The Role of Psychological Well-Being in Job Performance: A Fresh Look at An Age-Old Quest Written by: Thomas A. Wright Russell Cropanzono Presented By:

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Presentation on theme: "The Role of Psychological Well-Being in Job Performance: A Fresh Look at An Age-Old Quest Written by: Thomas A. Wright Russell Cropanzono Presented By:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Role of Psychological Well-Being in Job Performance: A Fresh Look at An Age-Old Quest Written by: Thomas A. Wright Russell Cropanzono Presented By: Seth Estock

2 Thomas A. Wright, P.h.D. Professor in Management at Fordham Schools of Business Education: Ph.D., 1984, University of California, Berkeley MS, San Francisco State University BA, Stonehill College Published in: Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Psychometrika, Journal of Management, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Journal of Management Inquiry, Human Resource Management Review, Organizational Dynamics, Academy of Management Executive, Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, Group and Organization Management, and others

3 Russell Cropanzano, P.h.D. Professor of Management and Entrepreneurship at the University of Colorado Education: P.h.D., Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana MA., Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas BA., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana “You don’t have to be greedy and self-interested to get ahead. In fact the data show that this may actually hurt you. We need to push back against that ‘greed is good’ philosophy. Good is good. It helps you and your organization.”

4 Purpose of Article “Happiness is a valuable tool for maximizing both personal betterment and employee job performance.” Traditional view of happiness as job satisfaction.

5 Outline I.Accentuate the Negative II.Back to the Future: Psychological Well-Being and Happiness III.Job Performance: The Organizational Consequences of Happiness IV.Broaden-and-Build: The Human Consequences of Happiness V.How to Build a Happy Workforce

6 Accentuate the Negative Journal of Applied Psychology Studies -Positive – sales went down 10% -Negative- sales increased 171% Negative emotion leads to action -“Fight or Flight” Good in nature, bad in the business world -Yearly performance evaluation procedure Personal experience with performance evaluation

7 Affective Events Theory (AET) “Affective Events Theory (AET: Weiss and Cropanzano, 1996), which suggests that employees’ positive emotional states are immediate responses to pleasant antecedent events at work.” “…a happiness episode may relate to a pleasant event (e.g. receiving positive feedback from my supervisor) that is appraised in a positive way (e.g. I am good in my job), and may result in the respective behaviors (e.g. enhanced performance).” Bakker, A.B., Ilies, R. (13 August, 2012). Everyday Work Life: Explaining with Person Fluctuations in Employee Well Being. Human Relations. V65, 1051-1069.

8 Back to the Future Happiness as Psychological Well Being (PWB) -Subjective experience -Happy to the extent that they believe themselves to be happy. -Presence of positive emotions and absence of negative emotions -Global Judgment Consistency over time High levels of PWB boost job performance. Increase capacity to appreciate new opportunities and experiences

9 Job Performance M.B.A. Student Study -With high levels of PWB -Superior decision makers -Interpersonal behaviors -High performance ratings Study of employees with high PWB -Higher pay 18 months later High PWB resulted in high supervisory performance years in the future. - Controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, job tenure, and education.

10 Conclusion of Studies Even after controlling for multiple different variables “when happiness is measured as PWB, it is consistently and positively related to various measures of job performance.”

11 Broaden-and-Build PWB broadens momentary thought-action repertories -Interest  Explore -Joy  urge to play, be creative -People who enjoy work consider it a “calling” Executive Illustration -Job – means to an end -Career – work for rewards. Driven by desire for power and prestige -Calling – Doing work is considered end in and of itself

12 Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P.M., Schaufeli, W.B., Wijhe, C.I. (4 April, 2012). Good Morning, Good Day: A Diary Study on Positive Emotions, Hope, and Work Engagement. Human Relations. V.65, 1129-1154.

13 Broaden-and-Build “Upward Spiral” -More PWB translates into being more proactive, resilient to adverse situations, less prone to stress symptoms Effect of PWB on the body -Positive emotion linked to increases in brain dopamine levels -Decrease blood pressure and heart rate -Help speed body’s recovery to its normal, pre- stress levels.

14 Good Morning America Case -C.R. Snyder -Specialist in positive psychology -Test of positive emotion on cast -Charles Gibson

15 How to Build a Happy Workforce Composition -Placing people into appropriate positions -Human and societal costs Training -Stress management training -Constructive self talk -Learned optimism -Metropolitan Life Case and personal experience Situational Engineering -Changing environment to promote, or not impair, worker PWB -Work/family balance -Equitable pay

16 Situational Engineering “…some research suggests that internal strife, conservatism, and rigid, formal management structures within organizations will impede creativity. Because individuals are likely to perceive each of these factors as controlling, they may lead to increases in individuals extrinsic motivation, and corresponding decreases in the intrinsic motivation that is necessary for creativity.” - Apple Campus and Googleplex Amabile, T.M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., Herron, M. (October, 1996). Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity. The Academy of Management Journal. V.39, 5, 1154-1184.






22 In Conclusion Belief that the happy worker is a productive worker are correct when considering employee happiness as PWB. Broaden-and-build is framework for understanding role of PWB in happy/productive workers - This may increase studies in other areas such as serene/thoughtful workers, caring/helpful workers, joyous/honest workers, and exhilarated/creative workers

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