Presentation on theme: "Effective Praise Pre-Service Workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1 Effective Praise Pre-Service Workshop The first two days in training, we have covered the theory behind the Teaching-Family Model and its components. In Principles of Behavior, we talked about continuous and intermittent reinforcement. Effective Praise is the tool we use to provide effective reinforcement.Effective praise is a teaching interaction used to reinforce appropriate behavior. If you see the youth do something you would like them to repeat, you will use effective praise to increase the chance they will engage in that behavior in the future.
2 The Continuum Effective Praise Verbal Praise Specific Praise Nonverbal Nonverbal Praise – positive facial expressions and gestures (smiling, raised eyes)Verbal Praise – statements indicating approval (“good job”, “awesome”)Specific Praise –a praise statement with a description of the appropriate behavior AND skill labeling (Great! You just emptied the trash immediately, showing me you were following instructions.)There is a wide range of praise beginning with non-verbal, which is indicated through our facial expressions and body language. EX: smiling, raised eyes, your body stance, hand gesturesNext is verbal praise or simple statements that indicate approval. EX: Good job, awesomeSpecific praise involved combining the general praise statement with a description of the appropriate behavior (observing and describing) and then labeling the skill that has been demonstrated. (EX: Great! You just emptied the trash immediately, showing me you were following instructions.)Effective praise is our goal. It combines all the necessary components to ensure praise is optimally effective. A general praise statement is given followed by the specific behavior and skill labeling. A youth centered rationale comes next and then the consequence or positive reinforcer. (EX: Great! You just emptied the trash immediately, showing me you were following instructions. Following instructions is an important part of doing things right the first time. Does that make sense? For following instructions and doing the task immediately, you earned 100 points.)In order to create a positive environment and maintain a positive to negative ratio of 4:1 to 10:1, you will look for opportunities to CATCH THEM BEING GOOD. Remember that you can praise a youth for anything, even if it is basic things you already expect from the youth.Effective Praise –a praise statement, description of the appropriate behavior, skill labeling, PLUS rationale and consequence - CATCH THEM BEING GOOD!
3 When To Use Reinforcing a weak skill (Including approximations) Teaching a new skill(and following preventive teaching)You will use Effective Praise to reinforce a weak skill. We have discussed praising approximations or parts of desired behavior. You will use Effective Praise when shaping toward a goal or desired behavior. Effective Praise will also help you reinforce the youth after teaching them new skills.
4 Why To Use Effective Praise: Provides specific reinforcement Increases likelihood of consistent future use and generalizationHelps build positive adult/youth relationshipsCreates a positive learning environment (minimum 4:1 ratio of positives to negatives)Some rationales for using Effective Praise are:It provides specific reinforcement as the youth know exactly what they need to repeat.It increases the likelihood that you will use the skill consistently in the future, including generalizing the behavior to other settings.As Effective Praise is focused on the positive elements, it helps build positive relationships with the youth.And Effective Praise helps create a positive learning environment in your home.
5 Why To Use Effective Praise: If a youth is difficult for you to get along with, try the praise experiment:Increase your frequency of effective praiseThey will like being around you because you are pleasantYou, in turn, will like being around them because they are more pleasantIf you experience youth who are difficult to get along with, try the praise experiment.Increase your frequency of Effective Praise and watch the youth improve their behaviors.They will like being around you because you are pleasant and will change their behaviors because they want you to notice them doing well.You, in turn, will like being around them because they are more pleasant.
6 When Praising Make it appropriate to the youth’s age and ability Avoid referring to past weaknesses “zingers”Watch for excessive enthusiasmDon’t wear it outDescribe specific behaviorWhen praising, make it appropriate for the youth’s age and ability. EX: Praising a 10 year old with hygiene problems for brushing his teeth, but not a 15 year old who has no hygiene concerns.Avoid referring to past weaknesses or using zingers. EX: “Great job following instructions, you never do that.” This makes the praise punishing.Watch for excessive enthusiasm. Be sincere and be yourself.Don’t wear it out. With most youth, it is very difficult to wear out praise. However, make sure you are not teaching to same skill or using the same rationales or praise statements every time.Describe the specific behavior, what you saw and heard. Tell them exactly what you want them to repeat.
7 Steps in Effective Praise Brief words of praise that take you immediately into step twoWhen starting the interaction, you want to get the youth’s attention. You do this by using a brief praise statement to engage them. You can also say the youth’s name. This praise statement takes you immediately into step two.Examples: “Good Job!”“That is Great!”
8 Steps in Effective Praise 2) Description of Appropriate Behaviora) label skillb) describe specific behaviorsExamples: “You just Followed Instructionsby looking at me and saying ok.”“You just Followed Instructionsby completing the task.”The description of the appropriate behavior is telling the youth specifically what they did and the skill they were using. When youth are first learning a skill, you will want to list all the steps in this step. Once they are using all the steps consistently, just pick one or two. This may be the step they typically struggle more with.
9 Steps in Effective Praise 3) Rationale Youth orientedShows the cause/effect relationship of the behavior or a possible outcomeShows the youth how the skill can help thema) label skillb) brief (one sentence)Example: “Following Instructions helps youget things done faster, giving youmore time to do what you want.”Give a youth centered rationale to help show the cause and effect relationship between using the skill and the possible outcome. Remember to use rationales the youth will buy into and that increase their desire to repeat the behavior. Label the skill again and keep it brief.
10 Steps in Effective Praise 4) AcknowledgementDoes the youth understand the rationaleGet a verbal responseExamples: “Does that make sense?”“Do you understand?”At this point you want to check for youth attentiveness and ensure your rationale was not confusing. Get a verbal response from the youth.
11 Steps in Effective Praise 5) Positive ConsequenceThe youth is reinforced for the appropriate behavior (positive reinforcer)a) label skillb) label specific behaviorExample: “For Following Instructions andsaying okay you have EARNED1,000 points.”The positive consequence serves as the reinforce to increase the behavior. Label the point economy, skill, and specific behavior.
12 Pleasant facial expressions Quality ComponentsUse youth’s namePleasant facial expressionsCalm voice toneProximitySame physical planePhysical touchEye contactUsing quality components in Effective Praise is crucial to developing relationships with the youth. It allows the treatment provider to sincerely and enthusiastically recognize the progress each child is making. It is how the praise is given that makes it effective in developing relationships and in reinforcing behavior. Quality components are important to increase youth receptiveness to what is being taught. Some examples of quality components include:Using the youth’s namePleasant facial expressions and body languageUsing a calm, yet enthusiastic voice toneYour proximity to the youth (Teaching from another room or yelling across the room doesn’t communicate interest in what is going on)Being on the same physical plane or lower than the youth so you are not hovering over them during the teaching interactionWhen giving positive feedback, increase your eye contact with the youth
13 Making Consequences Effective ContingencyReinforcement should follow a desired behaviorImmediacyDon’t wait; follow behavior with reinforcement ASAPSpecificityDescribe specific behavior and specific skillRemember that to make consequences or reinforcers effective:Contingency: The reinforcement should always follow a desired behaviorImmediacy: The more immediate the reinforcement, the more the behavior will increaseSpecificity: Describe the specific behavior and label the skill during the interaction
14 Behavior is best learned under pleasurable circumstances RESOURCESBehavior is best learned under pleasurable circumstances
15 When Praising………………….. Appropriate to child’s age and ability Avoid hinting at past weaknessesWatch for excessive enthusiasmDon’t wear it outDescribe specific behavior
16 50 ways to say “Very Good” You’re on the right track You’re doing a good jobYou did a lot of work todayNow you figured it outKeep up the good workNow you have the hang of itThat’s the wayYou’re really going to townYou’re doing fineNow you have itI’ve never seen anyone did it betterThat’s coming along nicelyYou’re really improvingYou did it that timeThat's better than everThat’s not half badYou’ve got that down patNothing can stop you nowYou outdid yourself todayYou're somethingYou are leaning fastThat’s quite an improvementThat’s a good(boy-girl)That’s the best you have ever doneI couldn't have done it better myselfGood goingKeep it upThat’s niceWowThat’s rightMuch betterWay to goNice goingSuperbNot badSuperThat’s itOutstandingPerfectThat’s greatLook at youRight onTerrificSensationalGood for youGood workThat’s betterExcellentFineGood job
17 Effective Praise Pre-Service Workshop The first two days in training, we have covered the theory behind the Teaching-Family Model and its components. In Principles of Behavior, we talked about continuous and intermittent reinforcement. Effective Praise is the tool we use to provide effective reinforcement.Effective praise is a teaching interaction used to reinforce appropriate behavior. If you see the youth do something you would like them to repeat, you will use effective praise to increase the chance they will engage in that behavior in the future.