Presentation on theme: "1 SAROPS Search And Rescue Optimal Planning System SMC/Watch Duties, Rescue 21, Etc. J. R. Frost U. S. Coast Guard Office of Search and Rescue (CG-534)"— Presentation transcript:
1 SAROPS Search And Rescue Optimal Planning System SMC/Watch Duties, Rescue 21, Etc. J. R. Frost U. S. Coast Guard Office of Search and Rescue (CG-534)
2 SMC/Watch Duties SAR, especially Search, is HARD—not easy “Information Sparse” Environment Aggressive Pursuit –Use All Available Information—What Does It All Mean ? –Investigate, Investigate, Investigate –Follow Lines of Evidence –Think “Outside the Box” –Keep Facts Separate From Assumptions –Avoid “Scenario Lock” and “Scatterbrained” Ideas –Take the Survivor’s Side –Do Not Give Up Easily—ACTSUS Tough Decision
3 Rescue 21 FM “Lock-on” Properties –Audio Files—Squelch Broken to Not Broken –Strongest Signal at Receiver Always “Wins” –Voice Signals From Multiple Transmitters & Directions May Be In The Same Audio File Tropospheric Ducting –Can Cause “Over The Horizon” Reception From Very Distant Transmitters
4 Rescue 21 Voice vs. DF Reception RFF DF Antenna Configurations & Heights –Top Mount vs. Side Mount –DF Receive Usually Above Voice Receive –Voice Receive Antenna Is “High Gain” Pre-Amplifier Between Antenna & Receiver –DF Receive Antenna Is “Low Gain” No Pre-Amplifier Between Antenna & Receiver –Voice & DF Reception Ranges Are Usually About The Same –Antenna Heights Are Tabulated
5 Rescue 21 Voice/DF Correlation Voice & DF Sub-systems Independent Voice & LOB Are Correlated When Both Sub-systems Receive A Signal— –At The Same RFF –On The Same Frequency –At The Same Time Cannot Absolutely Guarantee Each Sub- system Is “Hearing” Same Transmitter –R21 Does Not “Fingerprint” Transmitters
6 Rescue 21 What Does It All Mean? LOBs Must Always Be Evaluated For: –Relevance Does The Associated Audio File Contain Signals From Multiple Sources? If Multiple LOBs, Which Go With Which Signal? Do The LOBs Make Sense In Light Of Other Information, Including Range Rings? –Reliability Direction Relative To Tower for Side-Mount DF Antennas Signal Quality
7 Rescue 21 What Does It All Mean? R21 Best VHF-FM System Yet BUT… R21 IS NOT INFALLIBLE!
8 Actual R21 Mayday Sector Charleston MISLE Case # Q SEP 10 “Jacksonville… Mayday, Mayday, Mayday. We are going down off the coast of … Captain Bulldog, this is Coast Guard Sector Jacksonville, over… and a half miles out. Thirty-eight foot Fountain. If we …Maritime Center, Maritime Center, this is Hood. Do you read me?”
10 Mayday Call Heard Only On Mt Pleasant RFF
11 First LOB (259T) Found That Was Associated With Audio File
12 Second LOB (213T) Found That Was Also Associated With Audio File
13 Scenario Based on 213T LOB
14 A-1 (Helo), B-1 (Helo), B-2 (Boat) Completed with NEGRES POS for 38-ft Boat = 99%, POS for PIW w/o PFD = 21% ACTSUS Q SEP 10
15 Actual R21 Mayday Sector Charleston MISLE Case # Why NEGRES? –Failure To Detect Search Object That Was Present In The Areas? –No Detectable Search Object Present In The Areas? –Searching In The Wrong Place? Why ACTSUS Less Than 9 Hours After Distress Broadcast? –About one hour before sunset
16 Mt Pleasant Reception Range For 30-ft Transmitter Antenna
17 Mt Pleasant & Port Royal Reception Ranges For 30-ft Transmitter Antenna
18 Mt Pleasant, Port Royal & McClellanville Reception Ranges For 30-ft Transmitter Antenna
19 30-ft Reception & Radio Horizon Rings For All Three RFFs
20 Range Ring Analysis See USCG Addendum (a)(3)c and (a)(4)c.
21 LOB & Range Ring Analysis Scenarios See USCG Addendum (a)(3)c and (a)(4)c.
22 LOB Scenario Weight = 1 (Very Unlikely) Range Ring Analysis Scenario Weight = 10 (Almost Certain)
23 SAROPS Search Plan for 1 Hour After Mayday Conditional POS: 38-ft Cuddy Cabin 73%, Swamped 36%, PIW 5%
24 Distress Incident Position Q SEP 10 (Reconstructed From Survivor Debrief)
25 Capsized Boat, 7 Survivors Located and Rescued Q SEP 10 (4 Adults, 3 Children, Ages from 5 to 62. Adrift 20 Hours.)
26 Case had been re-opened based on overdue report from wife of O/O Q SEP 10. Searches conducted thru the night.
27 SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors TIME Issues –SAROPS Is A Time-Based Simulation –Tip: When Adding SRUs, Move Time Slider To Desired CST If Not Already There. –Tip: Searches May Be Planned For Any Period of Time Contained Between Drift Start Time and SIM End Time + 12 Hours Without Re-running SIM. –Always Use Planner! It Helps Avoid Errors From Time Mismatches, Eases Tracking Of Previous Searches. –Avoid Using “Patterns Tool” Outside of “Runs.”
29 SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Uncertainty Issues –Zero Position Error Is Never A Good Idea. –Very Small Position Error Is Usually Not A Good Idea. –Zero Time Error Is Often Not A Good Idea. –Non-zero Default Uncertainties for Positions (1.0 NM Probable Error) and Times (+/- 1.0 Hours) Are Coming.
30 SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Search Planning Epochs –Change Search Epochs (Go To Subsequent Search) At Day/Night Boundaries, or –Change Search Epochs Every 12 Hours, or –Change Search Epochs When Desired. –Avoid Search (Pattern) Assignments That Contain Sunset or Sunrise Whenever Feasible. –New Interactive Planner Will Address Many Planning Issues Now Handled Awkwardly.
31 SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Search Object Types –Use Multiple Search Object Types Initially As Appropriate, Not Always Just One. –Do Not Wait For Searches For Larger Search Objects To Fail Before Considering Smaller Search Objects. –Adjust Search Object Type Weights To Reflect Relative Likelihood Of Each Type –Use Check Boxes On SRU Properties Screen To Force Optimization Of Searches For Search Objects At Highest Risk.
33 SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Search Object Types (Continued) –Leeway Is Important! Choose Search Object Types Carefully Leeway Differences Will Eventually Separate Objects By Type –Detection Properties (Primarily Size) Are Important! Choose and Enter Dimensions Carefully Get Actual Dimensions Whenever Feasible Adjust Dimensions for Swamped/Capsized Boats (Next Version of SAROPS Will Provide Automatic Adjustment)
37 SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Environmental Data –Deploy SLDMBs Early And Often! The Only Wasted SLDMBs Are The Ones Not Used! “Activate” Deployed SLDMBs Use SLDMB Trajectories To Select Best EDS Surface Current Product –Edit Area of Interest (AOI) Default AOI Buffer Is Generous—Reduced Dimensions More Appropriate In Most Cases At Tools>Options>SAROPS>Run Parameters, Adjust AOI Buffer Speed Down To 2 or Even 1 Knots As Search Extends Beyond One Day (24 Hours)
39 SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Save & Export Cases Early & Often Get Help Earlier Rather Than Later –Small Problems Tend to Compound –SAROPS Help Desk, CG-534 Practice, Practice, Practice –General Proficiency –Learning What SAROPS Can Do –Learning More About How SAROPS Works
40 SAROPS Scenario Review Scenario Definition: Description of events up to and including the possible distress incident positions and times. Scenario Analysis & Development Is A Critical Success Factor! Last Known Position (LKP) –Distress Incident Position & Uncertainty –Distress Incident Time & Uncertainty
41 SAROPS Scenario Review LKP + Dead Reckoning (LKP + DR) –Distress Incident Time Known (No Uncertainty) –Previous Position/Time & Uncertainty For Each –Course/Speed & Uncertainty For Each Since Previous Position Area –Bounded Region Containing Distress Incident –Distress Incident Time & Uncertainty
42 SAROPS Scenario Review Voyage –Must be Complete From a Place of Safety to a Place of Safety –Each “Particle” Given Its Own Unique Voyage Plan –Ordered List of Positions and Areas Connected by Transit Legs with Min, Cruise, and Max Speeds –Loiter or “Dwell” Times & Uncertainties Allowed at All Intermediate Locations –Distress Occurs After Departure, Before ETA –Loitering at Departure and Destination (“Safe”) Locations NOT Allowed
43 SAROPS Scenario Review New Line of Bearing (LOB) –Statistical Distribution of Distress Incident Positions Based On Bearing Uncertainty and Minimum and Maximum Ranges from Observer’s Position –Ellipses for R21 “Fixes” (a.k.a. “Areas of Uncertainty”) New Flare –Bounded Region (“Area”) Containing Estimated Location of an Observed Flare’s Source –Bounds are Based on Min/Max Bearings & Min/Max Ranges from Observer’s Position
44 SAROPS TEAM U.S. Coast Guard CG-534 CG-761 CG-64 C3CEN OSC National SAR School R&DC Contractors Northrop Grumman Metron Applied Science Associates Other Federal USN NOAA NGA Thank you! Questions? J. R. Frost