Presentation on theme: "SAROPS Search And Rescue Optimal Planning System SMC/Watch Duties, Rescue 21, Etc. J. R. Frost U. S. Coast Guard Office of Search and Rescue (CG-534)"— Presentation transcript:
1SAROPS Search And Rescue Optimal Planning System SMC/Watch Duties, Rescue 21, Etc. J. R. Frost U. S. Coast Guard Office of Search and Rescue (CG-534)
2SMC/Watch Duties SAR, especially Search, is HARD—not easy “Information Sparse” EnvironmentAggressive PursuitUse All Available Information—What Does It All Mean?Investigate, Investigate, InvestigateFollow Lines of EvidenceThink “Outside the Box”Keep Facts Separate From AssumptionsAvoid “Scenario Lock” and “Scatterbrained” IdeasTake the Survivor’s SideDo Not Give Up Easily—ACTSUS Tough Decision
3Rescue 21 FM “Lock-on” Properties Tropospheric Ducting Audio Files—Squelch Broken to Not BrokenStrongest Signal at Receiver Always “Wins”Voice Signals From Multiple Transmitters & Directions May Be In The Same Audio FileTropospheric DuctingCan Cause “Over The Horizon” Reception From Very Distant Transmitters
4Rescue 21 Voice vs. DF Reception RFF DF Antenna Configurations & HeightsTop Mount vs. Side MountDF Receive Usually Above Voice ReceiveVoice Receive Antenna Is “High Gain”Pre-Amplifier Between Antenna & ReceiverDF Receive Antenna Is “Low Gain”No Pre-Amplifier Between Antenna & ReceiverVoice & DF Reception Ranges Are Usually About The SameAntenna Heights Are Tabulated
5Rescue 21 Voice/DF Correlation Voice & DF Sub-systems IndependentVoice & LOB Are Correlated When Both Sub-systems Receive A Signal—At The Same RFFOn The Same FrequencyAt The Same TimeCannot Absolutely Guarantee Each Sub- system Is “Hearing” Same TransmitterR21 Does Not “Fingerprint” Transmitters
6Rescue 21 What Does It All Mean? LOBs Must Always Be Evaluated For:RelevanceDoes The Associated Audio File Contain Signals From Multiple Sources?If Multiple LOBs, Which Go With Which Signal?Do The LOBs Make Sense In Light Of Other Information, Including Range Rings?ReliabilityDirection Relative To Tower for Side-Mount DF AntennasSignal Quality
7Rescue 21 What Does It All Mean? R21 Best VHF-FM System YetBUT…R21 IS NOT INFALLIBLE!
8Actual R21 Mayday Sector Charleston MISLE Case #520353 040954Q SEP 10“Jacksonville… Mayday, Mayday, Mayday. We are going down off the coast of … Captain Bulldog, this is Coast Guard Sector Jacksonville, over…and a half miles out. Thirty-eight foot Fountain. If we…Maritime Center, Maritime Center, this is Hood. Do you read me?”
14A-1 (Helo), B-1 (Helo), B-2 (Boat) Completed with NEGRES POS for 38-ft Boat = 99%, POS for PIW w/o PFD = 21%ACTSUS Q SEP 10
15Actual R21 Mayday Sector Charleston MISLE Case #520353 Why NEGRES?Failure To Detect Search Object That Was Present In The Areas?No Detectable Search Object Present In The Areas?Searching In The Wrong Place?Why ACTSUS Less Than 9 Hours After Distress Broadcast?About one hour before sunset
16Mt Pleasant Reception Range For 30-ft Transmitter Antenna
17Mt Pleasant & Port Royal Reception Ranges For 30-ft Transmitter Antenna
18Mt Pleasant, Port Royal & McClellanville Reception Ranges For 30-ft Transmitter Antenna
1930-ft Reception & Radio Horizon Rings For All Three RFFs
20See USCG Addendum 18.104.22.168(a)(3)c and 22.214.171.124(a)(4)c. Range Ring AnalysisSee USCG Addendum (a)(3)c and (a)(4)c.
21LOB & Range Ring Analysis Scenarios See USCG Addendum (a)(3)c and (a)(4)c.
22LOB Scenario Weight = 1 (Very Unlikely) Range Ring Analysis Scenario Weight = 10 (Almost Certain)
23SAROPS Search Plan for 1 Hour After Mayday Conditional POS: 38-ft Cuddy Cabin 73%, Swamped 36%, PIW 5%
24Distress Incident Position 041000Q SEP 10 (Reconstructed From Survivor Debrief)
25Capsized Boat, 7 Survivors Located and Rescued 050600Q SEP 10 (4 Adults, 3 Children, Ages from 5 to 62. Adrift 20 Hours.)
26Case had been re-opened based on overdue report from wife of O/O 042206Q SEP 10. Searches conducted thru the night.
27SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors TIME IssuesSAROPS Is A Time-Based SimulationTip: When Adding SRUs, Move Time Slider To Desired CST If Not Already There.Tip: Searches May Be Planned For Any Period of Time Contained Between Drift Start Time and SIM End Time + 12 Hours Without Re-running SIM.Always Use Planner! It Helps Avoid Errors From Time Mismatches, Eases Tracking Of Previous Searches.Avoid Using “Patterns Tool” Outside of “Runs.”
29SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Uncertainty IssuesZero Position Error Is Never A Good Idea.Very Small Position Error Is Usually Not A Good Idea.Zero Time Error Is Often Not A Good Idea.Non-zero Default Uncertainties for Positions (1.0 NM Probable Error) and Times (+/ Hours) Are Coming.
30SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Search Planning EpochsChange Search Epochs (Go To Subsequent Search) At Day/Night Boundaries, orChange Search Epochs Every 12 Hours, orChange Search Epochs When Desired.Avoid Search (Pattern) Assignments That Contain Sunset or Sunrise Whenever Feasible.New Interactive Planner Will Address Many Planning Issues Now Handled Awkwardly.
31SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Search Object TypesUse Multiple Search Object Types Initially As Appropriate, Not Always Just One.Do Not Wait For Searches For Larger Search Objects To Fail Before Considering Smaller Search Objects.Adjust Search Object Type Weights To Reflect Relative Likelihood Of Each TypeUse Check Boxes On SRU Properties Screen To Force Optimization Of Searches For Search Objects At Highest Risk.
33SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Search Object Types (Continued)Leeway Is Important!Choose Search Object Types CarefullyLeeway Differences Will Eventually Separate Objects By TypeDetection Properties (Primarily Size) Are Important!Choose and Enter Dimensions CarefullyGet Actual Dimensions Whenever FeasibleAdjust Dimensions for Swamped/Capsized Boats (Next Version of SAROPS Will Provide Automatic Adjustment)
37SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Environmental DataDeploy SLDMBs Early And Often!The Only Wasted SLDMBs Are The Ones Not Used!“Activate” Deployed SLDMBsUse SLDMB Trajectories To Select Best EDS Surface Current ProductEdit Area of Interest (AOI)Default AOI Buffer Is Generous—Reduced Dimensions More Appropriate In Most CasesAt Tools>Options>SAROPS>Run Parameters, Adjust AOI Buffer Speed Down To 2 or Even 1 Knots As Search Extends Beyond One Day (24 Hours)
39SAROPS Correcting Frequent User Errors Save & Export Cases Early & OftenGet Help Earlier Rather Than LaterSmall Problems Tend to CompoundSAROPS Help Desk, CG-534Practice, Practice, PracticeGeneral ProficiencyLearning What SAROPS Can DoLearning More About How SAROPS Works
40SAROPS Scenario Review Scenario Definition: Description of events up to and including the possible distress incident positions and times.Scenario Analysis & Development Is A Critical Success Factor!Last Known Position (LKP)Distress Incident Position & UncertaintyDistress Incident Time & Uncertainty
41SAROPS Scenario Review LKP + Dead Reckoning (LKP + DR)Distress Incident Time Known (No Uncertainty)Previous Position/Time & Uncertainty For EachCourse/Speed & Uncertainty For Each Since Previous PositionAreaBounded Region Containing Distress IncidentDistress Incident Time & Uncertainty
42SAROPS Scenario Review VoyageMust be Complete From a Place of Safety to a Place of SafetyEach “Particle” Given Its Own Unique Voyage PlanOrdered List of Positions and Areas Connected by Transit Legs with Min, Cruise, and Max SpeedsLoiter or “Dwell” Times & Uncertainties Allowed at All Intermediate LocationsDistress Occurs After Departure, Before ETALoitering at Departure and Destination (“Safe”) Locations NOT Allowed
43SAROPS Scenario Review New Line of Bearing (LOB)Statistical Distribution of Distress Incident Positions Based On Bearing Uncertainty and Minimum and Maximum Ranges from Observer’s PositionEllipses for R21 “Fixes” (a.k.a. “Areas of Uncertainty”)New FlareBounded Region (“Area”) Containing Estimated Location of an Observed Flare’s SourceBounds are Based on Min/Max Bearings & Min/Max Ranges from Observer’s Position
44SAROPS TEAM Thank you! Questions? U.S. Coast Guard CG-534 CG-761 CG-64 C3CEN OSC National SAR School R&DCContractorsNorthrop Grumman Metron Applied Science AssociatesOther FederalUSN NOAA NGAThank you!Questions?J. R. Frost